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Friends and Enemies

Cast of characters | Philip and Olympias, parents | Hephaestion, friend and more | Roxane, wife | Darius III, Persian king | Diogenes, philosopher | Bucephalus, favorite horse | Aristander, seer | Other friends and allies | Other enemies and opponents | Genealogy

Cast of characters

Glossary (people and not) for Elizabeth Carney's Alexander the Great and Ancient Macedonia.

Livius: "Related subjects" (most are people), from the indefatigable Jona Lendering. I've included some his entries below, but not all.

Philip and Olympias, parents

Wikipedia: Olympias. Not large enough! Usual Wikipedia caveats apply.

Wikipedia: Philip II of Macedon. Usual Wikipedia caveats apply.

Reader's Companion to Military History: Philip II. Excellent long entry by Eugene N. Borza. See also Macedonians and Top 5% Philip II and Olympias. Two lengthy articles by Jona Lendering.

Word doc: "Alexander, Olympias and the Regicide of Philip II" by Tracy Laird (from Michael Arnush's course Alexander the Great). Death of Philip: Murder or Assassination? by Sikander / Halil (collaborators). Detailed

Hephaestion, friend and more

Hephaistion - Philalexandros. Jeanne Reames-Zimmerman's deep exploration of Alexander's companion (and probable lover) Hephaestion. Includes a good examination of " Was he really Alexander's Lover....? " Reames-Zimmerman is also known for the Beyond Renault. Top 5%

Wikipedia: Hephaestion. Usual Wikipedia caveats apply. Hephaestion.

Roxane, wife Roxane.

Wikipedia: Roxane. Usual Wikipedia caveats apply.

"The Story of Roxanne, the Greatest Love Story in the History of the World" by Sam Sloane.

Darius III, Persian king "King Darius III Codomannus, The Last Achaemenid Ruler" Nick Welman's Darius III universe. Goes way beyond detailed (and source) essays. It even has polls. Top 5%

Wikipedia: Darius. Lengthy. Usual Wikipedia caveats apply.

Amazon. Darius dans l'ombre d'Alexandre by P. Briand.

Reviewed by Jan P. Stronk, BMCR (March 2004). Methological issues are at the forefront:

"Because practically all information on Darius has to be extracted from texts actually focusing on other subjects (predominantly Alexander), extracting it requires a strict methodological approach, executed with extreme precision. This process explains that writing on Darius, one necessarily has to write on Alexander as well: the story of Darius lies hidden in the shadow of Alexander."
Also touches on Darius in non-western traditions:
"More or less like the "Roman d'Alexandre", both Sasanian and Islamic stories about the battle(s) between the Macedonian and Persian armies show a complete lack of understanding of, or even interest in, the actual occurrences before, during, or after Alexander's campaign, including Darius' death."

Diogenes, philosopher

Diogenes of Sinope. James Fieser from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (The University of Tennessee, Martin)

Wikipedia: Diogenes of Sinope.

Alexander meets Diogenes retold.

Pen and ink: Diogenes in his tub visited by Alexander by Arnold Houbraken (17th century)

Colored etching: Alexander and Diogenes (actually two dogs, but one's in a barrel) by Edwin Landseer (see here).

Illumination: Alexander and Diogenes, from a 15c. French translation of Curtius (British Library).

Painting: Alexander and Diogenes by John Martin (1789 - 1854).

Bucephalus, favorite horse

Plutarch on Bucephalus. The Legend of Bucephalus.

"Indomitable Man, Indomitable Horse" Alexander, from The International Museum of the Horse. Very brief. They have more on Xenophon "The Father of Classical Equitation".

Degas, Alexander and Bucephalus. Discussion and image (National Gallery of Art). Check out the details .

Web Archive: Bucephalus and Alexander the Great.

Aristander, seer

Wikipedia: Aristander of Telmessus. Alexander's seer. Without doubt, the best entry on Wikipedia.[1] Top 5%

Other friends and allies

"Alexander and His Companions" by "Consul" B. John Zavrel, on Alexander's various official and unofficial "companions." I'm not sure where this is from. Calanus by Jona Lendering. Lendering loses me when argues Calanus's reported final words ("Alexander, we shall meet again in Babylon") may have been some sort of mistranslation through Akkadian.[2] Nearchus. Commander of Alexander's fleet, explorer and author. Parmenion and Philotas.

Other enemies and opponents

Word doc: "The Enemies of Alexander the Great: The Importance of Alexander's Treatment of his Primary Antagonists throughout his Conquest" by Eric Fackler (from Michael Arnush's course Alexander the Great). Twenty-six pages. Covers Darius, Porus and the city of Thebes.

Wikipedia: Bessus. Usual Wikipedia caveats apply.


Another genealogy.

Web Archive: Genealogy of Alexander the Great (chart in Spanish, but easy to understand) from someone at the University of Navarra, Spain.

LibraryThing: Catalog your books online.
Check out my new site
Wiki Classical Dictionary, currently focused on Alexander

If you enjoy this site you may also like these other sites by me:

Genghis Khan on the Web More than 275 links about the Mongol conqueror.

Cleopatra on the Web Over 410 resources on Cleopatra. Includes 168 images.

Ancient Library and the Wiki Classical Dictionray, major new reference sources for ancient studies.

Hieroglyphs! Over 125 links about Egyptian hieroglyphs for all ages and levels of knowledge.

( See all my ancient history sites )