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Algonquin Placenames in Windham County, Connecticut
Natives named places for the available resources to be found there.
Anthropologists are using these "ecological labels" to get a better
understanding of Native life more than 300 years ago.

American Indian Ethnobotany Database
This huge database (over 47,000 entries) took more than 25 years to compile,
and includes foods, drugs, dyes, fibers, and other uses of plants. This
represents the usage by 291 Native American groups of 4,029 species from 243
different plant families. Use the search engine provided.

The buffalo was necessary to the Plains Indian. Where once the herds
extended for miles, by 1889 there only 550 buffalo in the whole of the
United States. You can read excerpts from a documentary here.

Cattails and Grasses Used By Native Americans for Textiles
Six downloadable images of plants used by Native Americans. A brief
description of the plants and their uses accompanies each image and in the
cattail section you'll see a link to detailed instructions for you to sew
your own cattail mat.

Cedar - A Great Provider
An article about how the natives in British Columbia made use of the cedar
tree. They even had a technique called "planking" which allowed a tree to be
used and remain standing and alive.

Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump - Home Page
This "Jump" is located near Fort MacLeod, Alberta. That's Canada, eh? When
you're armed with only spears and need to kill several buffalo, the best way
is to herd them towards a cliff... aka "jump." It's an interesting site -
part commercial, part touristy, part historical and cultural. Follow the

Native Way - The Grandmothers' Cookbook
"Gather the locust at night immediately after they have left their shells.
Wash and fry them in a small amount of grease. Eat these hot or cold." Those
are the directions from a recipe in the "Oddities" section of this online
cookbook. There are more palatable ingredients in the majority of the other
recipes. This is a section of "Wisdom Keepers's" website. You can follow the
link to learn about this organization whose purpose is to pass along
traditional wisdom and skills to young Native girls ages 8-16.

The Roots of North American Medicine
Native Americans had a vast knowledge of medicine within the scope of their
surroundings. This all-text website tells you from what ailments they
generally suffered and how they treated them.

Stars Index
From the link starnow3.html on, you'll learn how the Native Americans
interpreted the stars, how they used their knowledge of them and how,
because of this knowledge, the Wheels which are found all over North America
came to be. There are many interesting facts here, told from a personal
point of view by this site's author.

Adoption: "Kids Lose When Culture Trumps Individual Rights"
Is the The Indian Child Welfare Act "symptomatic of a dangerous and growing
trend - especially in adoption cases - in which race and culture trump
individual rights? See what this author has to say.

American Indian Sports Team Mascots
This is an activist page with a chronology of changes made to names,
mascots, and symbols using Native-related terminologies, as well as a
section on the psychological aspects of such usage.

Anti-Indian Movement on the Tribal Frontier
By the mid-1970s, with a suffering U.S. economy straining Americans, the
introduction of legislation favourably affecting Native Americans caused a
surge of anti-Indian feelings. This scholarly essay outlines the situation.

Assessment for American Indian and Alaska Native Learners
How fair or practical is it to assess Native learners by standardized
American tests and how accurate can the results be? That's what this page is
all about.

Between Two Worlds
This is a thought-provoking, well-written essay dealing with such issues as
how natives walk a fine line between traditional values and the fast-moving
"outside" world. There's mention in particular of the Hopi Nation and of
AISES (the American Indian Science and Engineering Society).

blazingeye's Home Page
This personal site addresses the problems and consequences of ethnic
stereotyping (focus is on Native American).

California's Modern Indian War
Gaming operations are a big source of income and financial security for the
Indian nations. Currently there's a battle going on as to who can, will,
can't or won't participate in this profitable business. See what the fuss is
all about here in a long series of press articles. Other topics include land
rights and environmental issues.

Cherokee Fire
Despite the name, this site deals with issues of interest and importance to
ALL American Indians. You'll find Indian Rights, a message board, genealogy
information, American Indian art, treaties, Indian fonts, and other files.
There's a search engine and links to other sites.

Chili Corn
The 1950s Indian Relocation Act eventually resulted in the Dearborn Monument
Protest. The history, a personal description of these times, and a timeline
of events are given here to explain how the Native author came to write the
play "Chili Corn."

Cultivation: Language
An 1868 report from a federal commission on Indian affairs recommended that
"their barbarous dialect should be blotted out and the English language
substituted." Read about
the struggle to save the surviving languages of the indigenous peoples.

Deep Background
"Land is at the center of Dineh religion and life." Is there a form of
genocide being carried out against the Dineh and Hopi peoples of Black Mesa,
Arizona? Something's going on and this site will tell you all about it with
a good deal of background history from as far back as the Civil War.

Dos and Donts
This list of suggestions is for teachers but the list in itself is food for
thought as it makes us ponder how we think in regard to Native Americans.

Endangered Native American Languages
As many as half the world's 6000 languages spoken are now on the point of
disappearing as older generations fail to pass the languages on. This
discussion focuses in on Native languages in North America and pointedly
asks, "What is to be done, and why?"

First Nations/First Peoples Issues
A large number of links to topics which address the concerns of the First
Nations is provided here.

Frozen Diamonds and 350,000 Caribou
Are there diamonds in the frozen tundra on Dene lands in Canada's Northwest
Territories? This article says there are and that plans are underway by the
de Beers Company of South Africa to get their hands on them. It's yet
another issue concerning the Dene and their land claims.

HONOR - Honor Our Neighbors Origins and Rights
This website describes the history, purpose, and activities of an Indian and
non-Indian coalition formed to affirm treaties.

History of Strawberry Island
A developer wants to dig up a sacred burial ground on this island in
Wisconsin. This page discusses the issues involved.

Honor the Earth-Issues Overview
One of the main thrusts of this scholarly essay is the "destruction of the
male role and the diminished valuation of Indian women" as aboriginal
peoples were placed on reservations.

ICWA Letter Writing Campaign
Through this page you will be able to read a bit about legislation and also
read a sample letter that you may send to your representatives in
Washington. There are links to Senate and House of Representative members.

Indian Mascots and Genocide, the Shame of America's...
This site asks some hard questions, makes some hard comparisons, and offers
some disturbing photos. Follow the link to the homepage which offers similar
articles about issues facing Natives today.

Indian Poverty
Get a disturbing look at the realities of life for the average Indian on a
reservation. Learn why one of the poorest tribes, the Sioux, refused to take
$122 million in the past and won't take the over $300 million it's grown to
with added interest.

Kevin Costner...
"Who would do such a thing?" Well, the who, what, and why are all here and
Kevin Costner's right in the middle of it. It's about land claims, casinos,
and the desecration of sacred Sioux lands.

A Line in the Sand
This comprehensive website deals with the problems Native peoples face in
connection with cultural property rights.

Political borders - should they restrict native peoples whose homelands they
divide? This issue is discussed and examples given.

Native American Concerns
"There are several issues of immediate concern to Native Americans, of which
many non-Natives are not aware." Learn what these issues are.

Native American Elder Janet McCloud
Janet McCloud is a self-styled "Warrior Woman" who has spoken and written
extensively about Native rights. There are many interesting articles here,
some dating back to 1977.

Native American Peoples - A History of Genocide
The author of this article contends that there was/is a systematic plan in
the United States "to clear the land of its natural inhabitants." He offers
comparisons with other North American countries and even takes a shot at
Benjamin Franklin, who, if the facts are correct, certainly deserves it.

Native American Political Issues
This site will connect you to a page which explores the conflicts between
Natives and the United States government, and one which addresses the issue
of free movement on traditional lands which just happen to contain political

Native American Soldiers Will Be Allowed to ...
Peyote is an hallucinogenic drug used in Native religious ceremonies. This
article is about legislation concerning its use in the military.

Native American Spirituality
The high suicide rate among Native peoples has been attributed (by some
suicidologists) to the suppression of their religion and culture by federal
governments. This site gives you the state of the Native religions in an
overview and by tribal grouping.

Native American Support Group of New York City
An organization formed in 1988 to address issues of importance to Native
Americans brings you this website. Some topics discussed here include
Hawaiian sovereignty, the massacre in Chiapas, Mexico, and the desecration
of the Apache Sacred Mountain.

Native American World View Writings
The sub-title of this page is "American Indian Heritage and World View."
There are seven articles here, written by students.

The People's Paths
Got awhile? This extensive site addresses issues (past and present) that
affect the Native peoples of America, from the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic
to the Hopi of Black Mesa in Arizona. All text, and tons of it.

Planet Peace: Indigenous Community Internet Project
This site informs Natives and non-Natives alike of issues and events that
shape the Native world.

Repatriation Office
The Department of Anthropology at the Natural Museum of Natural History is
in the process of returning the human remains in its possession to the
tribes to which they belong. There is a tribe by tribe list, an explanation
of how the process is determined, and a chart or two.

Return of the Natives: An Eight-Part Series
This site covers topics such as of how the Oneida nation began legal
proceedings to win back their land and re-establish their culture, the
struggle between a cultural identity and recognition by the government, and
historical views of the Indian Wars.

Sacred Sites
Read this brief essay concerning how often the needs and plans of
non-Natives clash with the religious beliefs of Native peoples.

Walpole Island, First Nation, Canada
Walpole Island Indian Reserve is between Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA
at the mouth of the St. Clair River. This Nation faces great environmental
stress. Read about it here.

Whose Child Is It?
Does government offer Native women fewer rights than non-Native? The answer,
after reading this article, would seem to be, "Yes!"


Aadizookaanag, Dibaajimowin: Traditional and True Native American Stories
You'll find this site easier to read and more attractive if you use the MS
Explorer browser. Plan to be here a long time if you intend to read all the
essays, articles, and books (fiction and non-fiction) offered.

Ceremonial and Spiritual Traditions
Here's a legend here about a 'Great Race.'

Coyote Kills a Giant
This plain text page offers an entertaining little story about ingenuity.

Legends of Mt. Scott
Mt. Scott is a sacred place to the indigenous peoples of Oklahoma. There is
a legend here (one of many that exists) about it.

Native American Legends, Folk Takes and Stories
At this site you will find "Legends of the Blackfeet" and "Legends of the

Stories from the Sacred Dreamtime
Read three great traditional stories - "The Sleeping Bear," "Twokiller," and
"Lakota Brother."


Maps of Native American Nations, History, Info
If the author of this site hasn't included it here, chances are it doesn't
exist. An excellent, extensive site about native peoples and lands for all
of U.S. and Canada, as well a bit about Mesoamerica.

Map of Montana Reservations
The title of this site says it all -- a clearly-defined map of the

Mid-west Treaty Map
That's all that's here but it's clear, loads quickly, and shows the
locations of treaty and claimed lands. The regions are colour-coded
according to tribe.

Native American Population in the United States
There's a colour-coded map here showing the percentages of Native Peoples in
the United States. This information comes from the 1990 census.

Arts & Crafts

Ableza-A Native American Arts and Film Institute
There is a great deal at this attractive site to teach and entertain. Topics
include youth murals, programmes for schools, past projects, and so much

Acoma and Zuni Pottery
Take a look at this exhibit of pottery. The website does not say this, but
click on a specific piece of pottery to see whether it was made by the Zuni
or Acoma, then click on "Jpeg" to enlarge the image to full screen size.

Art Indian's Native American Art, History, and Cultural Tour
"History and Culture of the Native American through images and text." The
images load quickly and are accompanied by good text. Be sure to check out

Follow the link to the Pomo peoples' history to learn about the tribe - its
location (see map) and history - who makes/made the wonderful baskets you'll
see here. Beautiful as they are, many were meant to be purely utilitarian.

Contemporary Haida Art Form
You're given a brief history of Canada's Haida nation and its tradition of
art. This is a commercial site which offers for sale each of the beautiful
items you'll see here (all are enlargeable with a click), but "just looking"
is free.

Contemporary Hopi Arts and Crafts
You will find examples of katsina dolls, pottery, baskets, paintings,
sculpture, and photography.

De Bry Copper Plate Engravings
See numerous engravings which depict scenes of life for the Indians of North
America. Each one is accompanied by a detailed description. A click on any
small image will give you a full-screen one.

This brief page is a set of three questions answered by some person revealed
only as c00kie. You'll learn the legend behind the traditional Dreamcatcher,
how it was made, and the materials used now as opposed to the past. There
are no images here - you'll need to picture one in your mind's eye as you
read the description.

Guujaaw, Carver on Haida Gwaii
Follow the carving of a totem pole from raw timber to raised product via
this series of clear photos. There is no explanatory text to inform us of
the meaning (if any) of the particular design chosen by the carver.

The Heard Museum
Learn about artifacts, art, and some dances of the Southwest Native
Americans. The teachers' section includes a mailing list, a resources guide,
and free slides for grades seven through twelve. Artwork from Native
Americans in grades 5-12 is also included.

Hollister Collection
These thumbnail images of pottery from 17 tribes are viewable by tribe, form
or signature. Click on the small photo to see a larger one, with information
about size, etc.

Level 1 Lobby - First Peoples Hall
You're going to love this site from the Canadian Museum of Civilization
Corporation (CMCC). Its available in French or English and there are eleven
sections from which you can choose. The pictures are wonderful; the text is
great. Another good page here is "Wave Eaters: Native Watercraft in Canada,"
with many pictures.

Manidoominens: Sacred Seeds
Here's an impressive site with everything you ever wanted to know about
Native American seed beadwork. There are tons of information and photos too!

Native American Art Exhibit
Several artists from different tribes are featured here. If Native art is
your interest, you'll enjoy this site.

Native Tech: American Native Technology and Art
Take a look at this wonderfully informative site covering skills such as
preparing porcupine quills and making a clay pot. As well as getting
"how-to-do" facts, you learn the history behind these skills.

One Circle Home Exhibit
Take a virtual tour of exhibits showing the life of tribes in Southern New
England. The clear images load quickly and the accompanying descriptive text
is good.

Shapes and Uses of Californian Indian Basketry
So many baskets with specialized uses are shown and described here! There
are 27 images of basketry, including water carriers, footware, and traps
with three images showing the different weaving styles. All are downloadable
in .gif format.

Totem Poles
This site offers information on what totem poles are and what they mean.


Against the Winds
This ste covers Native American historical and spiritual running traditions.
Trade, communication, transportation, hunting, warfare, myths, legends, and
games are discussed; maps, timelines, and current events are included.

Greetings from Dennis Banks
check out this site about the Sacred Run - its history and what it means
today, plus other items of interest to Native peoples. (Peltier, for

The Importance of Sacred Sites to Native American Religions
The discussion here, after some good historical background, is about the
political end of homeland conservation.

Indian Graves and Cemeteries
Get a list of some of the final resting places for Native Americans,
especially some chiefs. See also Indian Agencies and Villages in Kansas.

The Living Tradition of Yup'ik Masks
Each page gives you a new photo of a religious mask and brief explanation of
what you're seeing.

Making a Dreamcatcher
Directions and illustrations about how to make a Dreamcatcher, plus a
Dreamcatcher legend. This is part of a massive site dealing with legends,
art, shamanism, healing, music, ceremonies and so much more. Viewing is
easier with MS Explorer.

Native American Holidays and Celebrations
This site is an ongoing project. So far there is a link to "Seven Sacred and
Ancient Cherokee Ceremonies".

Native American Religions
A profile, general beliefs, and specific tribal information about religious
rites and ceremonies (follow the in-text links).

Native American Spirituality
An excellent objective overview. In the introduction it says, "Native
Americans do not regard their spiritual beliefs and practices as a
'religion' in the way in which many Christians do. Their beliefs and
practices form a integral and seamless part of their very being".

Native Americans
The main focus of this site seems to be the "alien connection." The author
mentions UFOs, native prophecy (especially Hopi), and connects the myths and
beliefs of other ancient civilizations around the world to those of the
Native Americans.

Navajo Ceremonials
The ceremonies of the Navajo have been classified as "rites" and "chants" -
the distinctions and reason for the classification system are explained
here. Detailed information is given, with hyperlinks that will take you to
further explanation and, in some cases, sound files.

Navajo House Blessing Ceremony
This is a scholarly and in-depth exploration of an ancient Navajo ritual.
The author quotes several sources (Durkheim is one) as a basis for his

North American Masks
Access links to pages with good images of ceremonial masks.

Pow Wow Dancing
Don't miss this attractive site which gives you valuable information about
dancing styles, costumes, history, and proper etiquette for Pow Wow
participants. There's more - you'll see.

The Sun-Dance of the Sioux
An amazing first-hand account by Frederick Schwatka (from the late 1800s)
about this ceremony.

About the Chief Seattle Speech
Well, after reading all the facts and myths on this page, it seems to me
that Chief Seattle, while undisputedly a fine man, did not give the speech
for which he is so famous. There are links to versions of the speech, names
of the people who actually wrote the words, and lots of other information
surrounding the whole issue.

American Indian and Alaska Native Populations
There's a great deal of data here, and links to information concerning
population, housing, social and economic characteristics, language, and
tribes. It's all from the 1990 U.S. Census of Native Americans and much of
it requires the Acrobat Reader for viewing. The software is free and there's
a link to the site from which you can download it.

American Indian Culture Research Center
Discover the many things of interest waiting here for you. There seems to be
no end to the information here, in pages dealing with spirituality, culture,
women's issues, education, colleges, myths, and additional links. Don't miss
this site - allow plenty of time for it, too!

The American Indian in the Great War: Real and Imagined
This thesis was initiated by the author's discovery that 17,000 Native
Americans fought along side the people they called enemies less than 30
years earlier during the Indian Wars. All I can say is that if you're
intending to read everything here, you'd better be prepared to stay awhile -
there's a massive amount of information.

The American West - Native Americans
This is a condensed history starting 20 to 30 thousand years ago to the
present-day with a look into the 21st century.

See many examples of clothing worn by various Native peoples. You can choose
by Nation or by clothing article. A click on the arrowhead pointing left
will give you a second browser window and the option to check out toys,
musical instruments, and Native groups.

CodeTalk Home
What a site to try to explain here! There's information about all sorts of
things of interest to natives and non-natives alike - contact numbers,
demographics, government agencies, a photo gallery, art, language, culture,
etc., etc., etc. Click on the topic buttons, then follow the links. Works
best with MS Explorer.

Cyndi's List of Geneology Sites... Native American
This is a huge list of sites, neatly categorized and presented in an
attractive manner. The author maintains that she keeps it as current as

DNA and Native American Origins
A theory, based on DNA samples, that suggests Native Americans might have
originated in the South Seas Islands. The columns layout of the text is a
bit annoying and difficult to follow. This is a page from the Chattanooga
InterTribal Association website which has links to many other pages of
information. It can be accessed by clicking on "CITA."

Dynamic Explorers
A great history site and designed specifically for teens. (I'm way past that
age, but I liked it, anyway!) There is a 'Conquest' page with a search
engine and the account of De Soto's deeds are fascinating. Get the answer to
the question: "What Happened to the Natives?" There are several small,
downloadable black and white .gif graphics scattered throughout the website.
And don't forget to check out the page about "What Teachers Didn't Know."
There are many links there and a note for teachers, as well as an "adult"
version of the page.

Fifth Grade Native American Commemorative Stamps
The stamps displayed and described here are the creations of many fifth
graders. They've done a great job with this assignment, and the information
should prove most helpful to you.

The Flags of the Native People of the United States
This site is great! And it's not just the United States represented -
there's a link to Canadian nations, too. See the flags of the tribes and get
some good facts.

Naming Indian Children
There are three pages of a manuscript here. It isn't text you see, but
actual documents photographed and scanned, so they take awhile to load. The
material in them is an interesting read, however.

Native American Courage and Wisdom
Sitting Bull once said that in the morning, when he walked barefoot upon the
soil, he could "hear the very heart of the holy earth." These words and more
are to be found on this site. Read the words of the great chiefs.

Native American Homes
Eight fast-loading images of Native dwellings. Be sure to check out the
Remington Cheyenne Statue. Dragging your mouse over it provides a full 360
degree view. This site is from a fifth-grade class. Nice job, kids!

Native American Icons
There are some very nice icons and clip art images here, as well as
backgrounds and bars (links at bottom of page). They're all free and
downloadable in .gif format for your projects.

Native American Wisdom
Read several quotes from a variety of Native people, concerning life as they
view/ed it. These are arranged under four headings.

Native American Worldview: Hawk and Eagle, Both are Singing
It takes an awful lot of concentration to understand what this lady is
saying as she compares Indigenous and Western methods of science and

Native Americans
A brief historical overview of native cultures in North America, Mesoamerica
(Mexico and Central America), and South America.

Native Sense
Maybe you've eaten hominy, or grits, or even Corn Flakes? Well, all these
foods were made possible by American Native know-how. I found this fact on
the 'Native Contributions' page of the website. A very nice site, folks!

Order of the Indian Wars
What I thought might be a timeline turns out to be a series of brief pages
extolling the exploits of the American army against the aboriginal nations.
Oh, and to get INTO this elite "Order," you have to be a man. Hmmmmmm, eh?

The Original Native Peoples of the America - Past and Present
The Trail of Tears, the history of Treaties, and the Lenapes are just a few
of the pages available to you on this easy-to-read site. On page two, scroll
past all the awards this site has earned to get to other page links.

Potato Chips
What happens when you make a Native chef angry? He invents what has become a
billion dollar industry! Read this brief, but entertaining, article.

red_dawn's Home Page...A Continuing Story
A nice site! The "For Your Info" page has some really interesting trivia
facts. You'll find the sound files are slow to load.

Spanish Conquest of Native America
There are a great many topics to look into here. One question, "What
happened to the Native Americans?" is answered like this: "The Conquistadors
brought foreign diseases, horses, whips, swords, guns and vicious dogs to
America; they took women, food and slaves as they went." Choose the "Kids"
or the "Teens" section. There's also a page aimed at teachers. You'll be
here a long time - this site is massive.

StoneE's Weblodge
A wonderful website that has been named by the Discovery Channel's Discover
Magazine as a valuable Internet resource. This site is huge and contains too
much information to list it all here, but the section on the buffalo and its
great importance to Native life is one you won't want to miss.

The Real Pocahontas
An interesting biography with a picture of this Indian princess in the
stylish English clothing of the day. Also a discussion of where the Disney
movie did and didn't stick to the actual events.

This Week in "American Indian" History by Phil Konstantin
The amount of work that has gone into this page is obvious. Make sure you
leave yourself lots of time to check out all it has to offer. Mainly text

Tri-Racials: Black Indians of the Upper South
A serious discussion about the problems presented to census-takers and
genealogists by the inter-marriages between black, white, and native
peoples. There are lists of tribes who fit the tri-racial classification, as
well as many other facts.