Other literature


Aratus (c. 315-240) was famous in antiquity for his Phaenomena, a didactic poem mostly concerned with astronomy. Moderns generally scratch their head at the universal praise showered on Aratus' verse, but his influence cannot be denied.

Amazon. Phaenomena by Aratus, edited and with commentary by Douglas Kidd (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries).

Reviewed by Mark Possanza for BMCR 1999.

"Readers who have experienced the many frustrations of reading the poem without the aid of a full-scale commentary that devotes equal attention to the poetry, the astronomy and the weather signs can now thank their lucky—dare I say—stars that they are now able to read Aratus in the luxurious ease and comfort of this magisterial edition."

The Suda on Aratus. Medieval Greek encyclopedia, based on earlier sources. Visit the Suda On Line, a wonderful new site.

Aratus bibliography by Martijn Cuypers. Comprehensive.

"Written in the Stars: Poetry and Philosophy in the Phaenomena of Aratus" by Richard L. Hunter, Arachnion 2.

Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Illustration from and informationa bout 17th c. edition of Aratus Phaenomena from Out of This World: The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas , Linda Hall Library.

Web Archive Info on the Armenian translations of Aratus from the Armenian Studies program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Herodas, (sometimes written Herondas)

Herodas (3 c.) wrote so-called "mimes," humorous and frequently vulgar verse on common life. It's a shame there is so little on the internet.

Mime 4, Women at the Temple from a Classical Archaeology class at Texas, taught by Constanze Witt.

Herodas, Selection from The Third Mime (Ancient History Sourcebook)

Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Herodas bibliography by Martijn Cuypers. Comprehensive.


Moschus (2 c.) may or may not be the author of a couple of short poems surviving from antiquity. Europa is a very attractive epyllion. I haven't read the Lament for Bion or any of the other fragments. If the current state of the internet is any guide, you won't be reading it soon either.

Moschus bibliography by Martijn Cuypers. Comprehensive.

Review of Malcolm Campbell's Moschus. Europa. (Altertumswissenschaftliche Texte und Studien Band 19, 1991). Reviewed by James J. Clauss, BMCR 1992.

"Thus, although I would not order this book for a course on Hellenistic poetry, I am nonetheless pleased to have Campbell's updated edition and meticulous commentary of the Europa, which I shall consult with great benefit in the years to come."

Columbia Encyclopedia on Moschus.


Nicander (2 c?) wrote a number of didactic poems some of which have—amazingly—survived. The Alexipharmaca covers poisons and their antidotes, the Theriaca snakes and other creepy-crawlies.

Brief overview from Who was who?.

Amazon. A Hellenistic Treatise on Poisonous Animals: The Theriaca of Nicander of Colophon, A Contribution to the History of Toxicology by Peter K. Knoefel, Madeline C. Covi.

Amazon. Nicander : The Poems and Poetical Fragments ed. A.S.F. Gow, A.F. Scholfield (Greek Texts and Commentaries)

The Theriaque by Mireille Jacotin. On Kurdish and Arab texts stemming from Nicander.

Nicander bibliography by Martijn Cuypers. Comprehensive.

Other authors

Lycophron bibliography by Martijn Cuypers. Comprehensive.

Try as I might, I haven't been able to find anything else on Lycophron. What an opportunity!

Martijn Cuypers's "A Hellenistic Bibliography".

PDF: "The Pride of Halikarnassos. Editio princeps of an inscription from Salmakis" by Signe Isager, ZPE 1998. This is the text of a fascinating new inscription from Halicarnassus (Bodrum). The inscription in praise of the city mentions Herodotus at the end of a broken passage, so I'll quote a short poem found in Rhodes, perhaps by the same author:

"Assyria (has) the stone-mound of Semiramis.
But the city of Ninos did not bring forth an Andron, neither did
such offspring of the Muses shoot from the ground among the Indians.
Primeval Babylon did not nourish a mouth like that of Herodotos' which is even sweeter, nor
Panyassis with his sweet words, but the rugged earth of
Halikarnassos did. Through their songs
does she enjoy a renown among the cities of the Hellenes."

If you enjoy this site you may like these other sites by me:

Ancient Library and the Wiki Classical Dictionary. My exciting new site about the ancient world, with thousands of pages of reference works and an interactive classical dictionary

Cleopatra on the Web. Comprehensive guide to Cleopatra VII of Egypt in history and the Western imagination

Alexander the Great on the Web. Over 1,000 links and 200 images of the Macedonian conqueror