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The U.S. Cavalry Vs The Indians
Events and dates listed here that cover the United States Army Campaigns against the Indians have been excerpted From

A Portrait of The Stars and Stripes

Seniram Publishing, Glenside, Pennsylvania.

Copyright 1989

These excerpts and the cover story are intended to act only as a timeline for the various conflicts and to give the reader a sense of  the context of the volume. The material included in this sample may be used and reprinted by students and for non-commercial use by the individual; however, no part of this sample may be reproduced or transmitted  in any manner whatsoever, except those aforementioned  without written permission of the publisher.

The U.S. Cavalry Versus The Indians

1832 through 1898

After the Civil War, the United States concentrated on the reconstruction of its war-torn southern cities; its Army however, would continue to engage in battle with Indian tribes, many of whom remain hostile.

These fierce warriors, determined to keep their lands free of encroaching settlers, swept down in hordes, showing little compassion. An Indian attack was swift and merciless. Without notice, any unsuspecting settlement or ranch might be ravaged. After a savage raid, the Indians often tortured their captives with slow fire, scalping and mutilating the dead, then stripped the corpses, using the carnage for target practice. In many instances, the withdrawing attackers took women and children captive, often a fate worse than death. The Army attempted to quell these attacks, but Infantry was no match for what was probably the greatest Light Cavalry in the world. Forts were scattered sparsely throughout the Territory in a terrain unfamiliar to the troops, causing additional hardships for the Army. These circumstances caused the U.S. Cavalry to assume its prominent role in the course of American history.

The U.S. Cavalry was formed in 1833 with the merger of the Rangers and the 1st Regiment of Dragoons. Their exploits took them into battle with the Comanches and Pawnees in 1834, against the Seminoles, Pueblos, Apaches and others, up to outbreak of the Civil War. In fact, the Civil War exacerbated the problem, as Army troops were rushed from Indian Territory to fight in the East during the Civil War, giving the Indians open season on the settlers, with death and destruction ensuing.

During 1858, a contingent of Cavalry commanded by Colonel Steptoe exemplified the courage and valor of the Horse Soldiers. These 150 men were surrounded by a hostile force of over 1,200 warriors. They yielded not an inch nor showed any fear. Their ammunition dwindled to three rounds per man but they stood firm prepared to empty their guns and give their lives for the Colors. The Indians suddenly and inexplicably withdrew, sparing the Cavalry certain disaster. The Cavalry avenged this attack by devastating the Indians at the Battle of Four Lakes, in the vicinity of Fort Walla Walla, Washington Territory, inflicting over 500 casualties on the enemy, yet suffering none themselves.

Apaches, known for their ruthless tactics, massacred fourteen miners who foolhardily attempted to cross Apache Pass in 1861. Simultaneously, an advance Cavalry unit under a Captain Roberts approached the pass from the opposite direction. The Cavalry although am-bushed, shocked the Apaches with artillery fire. These "shooting wagons" as the Indians described them, prevented a catastrophe, allowing the besieged troopers to hold out until reinforcements arrived. The Cavalry, once reinforced, crossed Apache Pass; counting over 60 dead warriors, while suffering only 4 casualties themselves. Apache Chief Mangus Coloradas had been gravely wounded at this battle by the fortuitous luck of Trooper John Teal, who after having had his horse shot out from under him while attempting to get reinforcements, fired from behind his horse, wounding the Chief and saving the day.

The Stars and Stripes waves briskly over the newly constructed Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, in 1866. Logging parties attempting to supply lumber to the Fort were under continuous attack. On one such mission, two men were captured and tortured. One week later, their skulls and skeletons. were retrieved. Some Cavalry Officers remained unconvinced of the tenacity of the Indians. One such Officer, a Captain Fetterman, boasted "GIVE ME EIGHTY MEN AND I'LL RIDE THROUGH THE ENTIRE SIOUX NATION" During December, 1866, Fetterman was ordered to assist a wagon train near Fort Kearny. He blatantly disobeyed his orders, advancing his column towards certain death. In a battle which lasted under half an hour, twenty-five percent of the troops from Fort Kearny were wiped out. The naked, scalped bodies of the eighty-one Troopers were recovered by a search party. This unnecessary disaster would be remembered always as "Fetterman's Folly" This defeat convinced the Army that these defenders needed the new 50 calibre Springfield breech-loaded rifles which were forwarded to Fort Kearny the following spring. It did not take long for the rifles to prove their worth. A contingent of 40 men under the command of Captain Powell were attacked by a massive Sioux war party, exceeding 1,500 Braves, in the vicinity of Fort Kearny. Powell, with an enormous amount of calm cockiness, states: "MEN, FIND A PLACE IN THE WAGON BOXES, YOU'LL HAVE TO FIGHT FOR YOUR LIVES TODAY~' These defiant, outnumbered defenders fired at will, stopping waves of war-painted, Indians from overwhelming their small makeshift Fortress of overturned wagons. The Indians finally withdrew. Sgt. Sam Gibson, elated after the "Wagonbox Fight", remarked: "THANKS TO GOD AND LT. GEN. SHERMAN, WE WERE ARMED WITH THE NEW WEAPON:"

The Horse Soldiers continued their search and destroy missions, defeating the northern Cheyennes led by Chief Tall Bull, at the Battle of Summit Springs in Colorado during January, 1869. The Cavalry also devastated the Modocs at the Lava Beds, in California, with overpowering artillery, blasting the Indians into submission. The Modoc War ended with the public hanging of Chief Captain Jack on the parade field of Fort Klamath, on October 3rd, 1873. General Mackenzie's Cavalry pursued the Kiowa and Comanches relentlessly during 1874. The Indians finally surrendered during the winter. The Sioux and Cheyenne under Sitting Bull finally secured a major victory against the Cavalry on June 25th, 1876, at the Little Big Horn. The famed 7th Cavalry under Custer, split in two, approached the ponderous Sioux-Cheyenne encampment. Custer's men, after being completely surrounded by the hostiles, fought to the last man. Legend has it that Custer was the only man to escape scalping, although there is no documenting the fact. The other half of the 7th Cavalry was surrounded on the 26th. They held out against overwhelming odds, for two days, until a relief column under General Terry arrived to save them. The Indians chose not to fight the larger force and withdrew savoring their tremendous victory over Custer's 7th Cavalry.

Custer's demise was mourned by the entire nation, but the Cavalry rose to the occasion, armed with vengeance in their hearts, retaliating furiously, never forgetting the 197 mutilated, naked bodies of the gallant 7th. Buffalo Bill Cody became a national hero for his courageous actions at the Battle of War Bonnet Creek, in the vicinity of Fort Robinson, Nebraska, in July, 1876. The 7th Cavalry crushed the Nez Perce Tribe under Chief Joseph, in retaliation for the Indian victory over the Cavalry at White Bird Canyon. Chief Joseph surrendered on October 5, 1876, ending the war.

The northern Cheyenne attempted to leave their Oklahoma reservation, to return to Montana, but the Cavalry pursued without mercy, badgering them into submission. The Apaches continued their hit-and-run skirmishes, but in July, 1882, the Cavalry vanquished the Apaches at the Battle of Big Dry Wash, the last major battle on Arizona soil.

One of the most tenacious and evasive of all the Chiefs was Geronimo, who destroyed at will, while always avoiding capture. On the two occasions when the Cavalry managed to subdue him, he escaped. In an attempt to end Geronimo's terror-raids, the Cavalry marched 48 hours without rest to surprise the sleeping Apaches, on January 8, 1886. The Cavalry captured all the Indian supplies, but not Geronimo, who reached Mexico safely, where he continued to raid settlements until he surrendered for the third and final time, in Mexico, during September of 1886.

The final half of the 1880s signaled the end of the Indians as a powerful foe. The Cavalry and its artillery were simply too much for the once indefatigable Indians. The great Chiefs grew scarce, the buffalo were nearly extinct. The Indians attempted to dance back the buffalo and spirits of their departed, in anticipation of the appearance of the Indian god, however, their situation only worsened. An Indian policeman shot Chief Sitting Bull on December 15th, 1890, while attempting to place him under arrest and the Cavalry captured the Sioux under Chief Big Foot, subsequently moving them to Wounded Knee Creek. As the Cavalry attempt to disarm the captive Sioux, a warrior fired a shot in the direction of the troops, most of whom were members of the 7th Cavalry. The 7th respond immediately, asking no explanation or question. Their deadly first volley killed approximately half the Sioux. Shots continued until many more Indians men, women and children were killed or wounded. The battle was a one-sided victory for the 7th, but they lost 25 men killed and 37 wounded to these defiant, proud warriors, who flung the final arrows against the Horse Soldiers. They would fight no more. The great Chiefs, Mangus Coloradas, Cochise, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Joseph, Geronimo and many others, had done their best, but settlers could now move throughout the West, untroubled by fear of hostile attacks.

The role of the U.S. Cavalry would soon end forever, as machines replaced the horse, but these proud men who had followed the orders of Washington rode to glory and immortality. Their boots and saddles embossed and carved a legend of valor and courage in the hearts and minds of all Americans. This nation owes a tremendous debt of gratitude to the Cavalry, for without their determination and sacrifice, the West could never have been secured.

It should be duly noted that many friendly Indians fought side by side with the Cavalry over the duration. Their help, as interpreters, scouts and fighters, was an admirable and invaluable contribution to the winning of the West.

Chronological List 1832 through 1898

Indian War And U.S. Cavalry

1832 - During 1832, Mounted troops known as Rangers are dispatched to Fort Gibson, Oklahoma with orders to set up their camp approximately 5 miles north of the Fort on a little stream flowing into the Grand River (Ranger Creek). Within a year, these troops are merged with the Dragoons and become the U.S. Cavalry.

March 2nd 1833 - Congress would merge the Rangers and the 1st Regiment of Dragoons, initiating the birth of the "U.S. Cavalry:'

June 15th 1834 - Colonel Henry Dodge, with 500 Dragoons, leaves Fort Gibson heading for the Arkansas Territory to search out and destroy the Comanche, Pawnee and other hostile Indian tribes who had gone out of reach of the U.S. Infantry.

1835 - A detachment of the U.S. 7th Infantry is dispatched from Fort Gibson with orders to proceed under the command of Captain Stuart and establish another Fort (Fort Coffee) which is to be located approximately 13 miles further up the River.

December 28th 1835 - The "Dade Massacre" Seminoles ambush Soldiers as they march to reinforce Fort King, Florida.

May 19th 1836 - Approximately 100 Comanches raid the Texas settlement of Parker's Fort in Limestone County, Texas. Two women captives are the first known white women taken captive by Comanches.

May 26th 1837 - Representatives of the Apache Kiowa, and Tawakoni Tribes sign a Peace Treaty at Fort Gibson, Oklahoma. This is the first treaty adopted between the U.S. and these Indians.

March 9th 1840 - Council House Fight - "Mook -War - Ruh" and 12 other Comanche War Chiefs with their families arrive in San Antonio for a peace parley, but a fight ensues.

March 26th 1840 - One woman held captive by the Comanches, Mrs. Webster, steals a horse, escaping from their village with one of her children. She arrives at San Antonio safely. Booker Webster, her son, and one 5 year old child survive. All other white captives held by the Comanches are "skinned, sliced and horribly mutilated, finally being burned to death" (described by Booker Webster).

August 4th 1840 - Comanches under "Buffalo Hump" bypass San Antonio with their war party of over 1,000 braves. A Militia force pursues the Indians.

August 6th 1840 - The Comanches encircle the town of Victoria, Texas and massacre several people on the outskirts.

August 7th 1840 - Buffalo Hump's warriors raid settlers along Peach Creek, as they move toward the Gulf of Mexico.

August 8th 1840 - The Comanches raid Linville, Texas (vicinity of San Antonio). The savages take Daniel Boone's granddaughter captive.

August 8th 1840 - Captain McCulloch and his Texas Rangers arrive as Linville, Texas, still in pursuit of  Buffalo Hump.

August I0th-12th 1840 - Texans from all over are converge on Plum Creek to intercept Buffalo Hump's force. Tonkawa Chief Placido and 14 of his warriors join the Texans acting as scouts. The Texans engage the Comanches and chase them for approximately 15 miles towards Austin.

October 1840 - Texans under the command of Colonel John M. Moore, on the trail of the Comanches since the battle of Plum Creek, finally discover a Comanche camp of approximately 100 warriors, near the Red Fork of the Colorado, and seek revenge for the Linville Massacre.

Early 1846 - Colonel Stephen W. Kearny had previously taken an expedition into Nebraska to locate a strategic area for a Fort to assist settlers as they traveled westward. His choice of locations had been in the vicinity of the Missouri River at the mouth of Table Creek. The troops depart Fort Leavenworth during early 1846 and begin construction but the number of settlers that pass in the vicinity of the Fort is sparse, causing a Battalion of troops to winter there for the winter 1847-48, and then the troops move on to the Platte River and reestablish a Fort along the Oregon Trail. The new more adaptable Fort will also be named Fort Kearny.

November 1846 - Major William Gilpin, with approximately 180 men, in addition to 60 Mexicans and Pueblo Indians, cross the Cordilleras mountains to join with Doniphan to engage the Navajo Indians.

January 19th 1847 - BENT MASSACRE - Pueblo Indians under Chief Tomasito attack settlers. Governor Bent of the New Mexican Territory is among the casualties.

February 3rd 1847 - The U.S. Army, accompanied by 6 pounder cannons, attack the Pueblo de Taos and its Garrison of Pueblo Indians to avenge the Bent Massacre.

1849 - The San Antonio-El Paso Road is opened to travelers and immigrants. During 1853, the Federal Government awards a Mail contract to George H. Giddings. His company subsequently uses this route to transport the U.S. Mail. During 1857, the contract is awarded to James Birch who will be remembered for the "Jackass Mail." To continue the story of the U.S. Mail, the "Butterfield Overland Mail" initiates mail service during 1859 carrying between St. Louis and San Francisco.

June 2nd 1849 - Fort Kearny, Nebraska is a solid edifice along the Oregon Trail but the Garrison is not sufficiently supplied to lend the proper amount of assistance to the wagons as they pass heading for California and points west. By this date, according to the records of a Lieutenant Woodbury, 4,400 wagons have passed the new Fort, not including those that passed on the other side of the Platte River.

October 22nd 1854 - The U.S. Army establishes a new military post which is to assist with the protection of the Sante Fe Trail. Life for the Indians in the area has changed rapidly since the free flow of settlers heading West. Fort Larned becomes the northern anchor of a chain of Forts defending the southwestern frontier against hostile Indians. Fort Larned is responsible for the Kansas section of the Santa Fe Trail.

March 1854 - Apaches ambush approximately 60 troopers under Lt. Davidson, on the northern New Mexico plains.

June 1854 - General John Garland, commander of troops in New Mexico, initiates two campaigns against the Apaches.

October 1854 - U.S. Major General Persifor F. Smith selects a location in the Davis Mountains in Western Texas, for the location of a new Fort to be constructed for the defense of the area. The Fort is named in honor of Jefferson Davis (Secretary of War and later President of the Confederacy). Six companies of the U.S. 8th Infantry move west to establish and construct the new Fort which is located in the vicinity of Limpia Creek in a Box Canyon. In other activity, American troops chase and engage Apaches who have attacked a wagon train on the El Paso-San Antonio trail.

January 1855 - U.S. Cavalry under the command of Captain Thorn departs Fort Thorn on the Rio Grande and meets up with Captain Henry Stanton, to search and destroy Apaches along the Penasco River, 200 miles to the east.

March 1855 - The First U.S. Cavalry Regiment is authorized by Congress through the efforts of Jefferson Davis. It is called the 2nd Cavalry and known as "Jeff Davis' Own." This Regiment is given new breech-loaded Springfield rifles.

June 1855 - Mescalero Apaches sign a treaty ending their war with the United States.

July 1855 - The Gila Apaches also seek to sign a peace treaty, agreeing to become peaceful farmers.

November 1856 - Major Kendrick is sent to find Apaches raiding the herds of friendly Navajo Indians. One of the men with him is Henry Linn Dodge, Navajo agent.

June 23rd 1857 - U.S. troops are withdrawn from Fort Gibson, Oklahoma. In accordance with agreements from the treaty with the Cherokee nation, the post will be given to the Cherokees on September 9,1857. The present-day town of Keetoowah, Oklahoma is established on the site.

July 20th 1857 - A 2O-man detachment from the 2nd Cavalry under Lt. John Hood is ambushed near Devil's River, Texas.

July 21st 1857 - The 8th Cavalry from Fort Hudson arrives to reinforce Lt. Hood with supplies.

April 22nd 1858 - Rip Ford, a scout, leaves Camp Runnels, Texas, with a force of over 100 Texas Rangers and approximately 100 Indian scouts, heading towards Oklahoma to search out and destroy Indians. The force encounters a massive Comanche village on May 11th.

May 6th 1858 - Colonel E. I. Steptoe and his command of 157th Infantry and Dragoons are attacked by over 1,200 Indians, at Fort Walla Walla, Washington Territory.

September 1858 - Colonel George Wright's troops cross the Snake and Pease Rivers to engage Indians at "Four Lakes."

October 1st 1858 - The U.S. 2nd Cavalry marches almost 100 miles in 37 hours to surprise a Comanche war camp north of the Red River, at Rush Springs, Oklahoma Territory. The Indians are under Chief Buffalo Hump. U.S. Major Van Dorn (later a Confederate General) commands the Soldiers. Van Dorn also leads an attack against the Indians in another battle at Crooked Creek during 1859.

1860 - The Apaches allow the Butterfield Stage Coach Line to pass safely through their Territory to keep Soldiers from coming in force.

October 1860 - The Cavalry is dispatched from Fort Buchanan to recapture a young boy kidnaped by Apaches.

December 17th 1860  - Texas Ranger Sul Ross with 60 Rangers and about 70 Settlers and Scouts, pursue Comanche Chief Nawkohnee. The Rangers are joined by a detachment of the 2nd Cavalry, consisting of 20 men.

December 17th 1860 - During the Cavalry raid on Nawkohnee's camp, a white woman and child are discovered. The woman turns out to be Cynthia Ann Parker, one of the children captured during the raid on Parker's Fort in 1836. She speaks no English and has become the wife of Nawkohnee.

February 4th 1861 - Second Lieutenant George Nicholas Bascom and a command of 50 Troopers go to the stagecoach post at Apache Pass, demanding that Cochise return Felix Ward or Cochise will face prison at Fort Buchanan. Cochise escapes but 6 warriors are taken prisoner The Indians are hanged. Fighting continues for several weeks between the Cavalry and the Apaches until reinforcements including Infantry and Dragoons arrive. The Apaches will continue to fight for the next 12 years.

February 13th-14th 1861 - Reinforcements from Fort Buchanan and additional troops from Fort Breckenridge arrive and finally break the siege at Apache Pass.

February 19th 1861 - Captain Irwin, after locating the bodies of the six captives held by Cochise and seeing them being devoured by vultures, immediately orders the hanging of the six Apache prisoners being held.

March-April 1861 - Three of the six Apaches hanged on the return march to Fort Buchanan are close relatives of Cochise. Approximately 150 white men are killed trying to pass the Overland Trail, probably in retaliation for the hanging of the Apaches.

August 1861 - By this time, the Union troops have abandoned Fort Davis and it is Garrisoned by Confederates. Apache Chief Nicholas decides to steal cattle and horses from the new residents of the Fort and he is pursued by a detachment of 13 men, led by Lieutenant Reuben E. Mays. The Apaches, numerically superior, stop running on the 12th and ambush the Confederates.

September 27th 1861 - Mangus Coloradas, Apache Chief and father-in-law of Cochise, attacks the town of Pinos Altos.

September 28th 1861 - A wagon train is attacked by Mangus Coloradas and his Braves as it leaves Pinos Altos.

November 1861 - Chief Opothleyohola leads 4,000 Creeks towards Union, Kansas and is attacked by Indians allied with Confederates and Texas Cavalry along the way.

July 4th 1862 - Union Cavalry assisted by an artillery outfit armed with howitzers, under the command of Captain Thomas Roberts, depart Tucson, acting as an advance guard, and begins to move through Apache Pass en route to Sante Fe. They are followed by the main guard under Captain John C. Ceremony.

July 14th 1862 - Apaches ambush a group of 14 miners approaching Apache pass. rom the east, killing all. While the miners at the other end of the pass are being ambushed, the Apaches watch the advance guard under Roberts begin to climb Apache Pass from the opposite end.

July 15th 1862 - BATTLE OF APACHE PASS -

August 1862 - General Carleton builds Fort Bowie at the approach to Apache Pass.

August 17th 1862 - Four Santee Sioux Indians massacre three men and two women on a farm near their reservation in southwest Minnesota. The Indians appear on the pretense of a friendly target shoot, but after the settlers' guns are emptied, the Indians open fire to kill.

August 1862 - In Minnesota, Santee Sioux take to the warpath. Some settlers manage to escape and arrive at Fort Ridgely, Minnesota. Captain March takes a detachment of 48 men to search for the Sioux.

August 22nd 1862 - Fort Ridgely, Minnesota, Garrisoned by a mere 180 Soldiers and armed Civilians, is attacked by Sioux under Little Crow. Artillery Sgts. Whipple and McGee, fire at point blank range, to attempt to hold the fort. Lt. Timothy Sheehan rallies the troops for a last stand, positioning the guns for a final salvo.

August 23rd 1862 - A large party of Santee Sioux attack New Ulm, Minnesota.

September 18th 1862 - Colonel Henry Sibley moves out to attack Sioux under Little Crow at the Yellow Medicine River.

September 26th 1862 - The Sioux turn over 269 prisoners, mostly women and children, to Colonel Sibley. Sibley moves on, capturing Indians until the prisons at Fort Snelling and Fort Mankato are filled to capacity.

October 1862 - Colonel Kit Carson on the way to Fort Stanton receives orders from General Carleton. "ALL INDIAN MEN OF THAT TRIBE [Mescalero Apaches] ARE TO BE KILLED WHENEVER AND WHEREVER YOU FIND THEM:" Carson expresses shock, but goes on towards Fort Stanton to carry out his orders.

October 1862 - Carson's troops who are dispatched from Fort Stanton find only deserted Indian camps. However, another troop under James Graydon finds a tribe under Chief Manuelito. The Apaches state that they are on their way to Sante Fe, to "beg for peace:' Graydon's troops commence firing, but some escape. Carson sends his feelings of being upset, to General Carleton, who responds: "IF YOU ARE SATISFIED THAT GRAYDON'S ATTACK ON MANUELITO WAS NOT FAIR AND OPEN, SEE THAT ALL HORSES AND MULES ARE RETURNED TO THE SURVIVORS:"

November 1862 - Colonel Kit Carson escorts Chief Cadette to Sante Fe in search of peace but he receives an ultimatum from General Carleton: "SURRENDER AND GO TO THE RESERVATIONS ON THE PECOS OR BE KILLED:"

December 28th 1862 - Thirty-nine Sioux, convicted of brutal crimes against the settlers in Minnesota, are put to the gallows.

January 17th 1863 - Apache Chiefs Mangus Coloradas and Geronimo, along with several warriors expecting to talk peace under the flag of truce with Soldiers at Pinos Altos, are taken prisoner. Mangus is shot during the night. Brigadier General Joseph West has instructed two sentries "MEN, THAT OLD MURDERER HAS GOT AWAY FROM EVERY SOLDIER COMMAND AND HAS LEFT A TRAIL OF BLOOD 500 MILES ON THE OLD STAGELINE. I WANT HIM DEAD TOMORROW MORNING. DO YOU UNDERSTAND? I WANT HIM DEAD."

January 17th 1863- The 1st U.S. Cavalry engages the Indians at the Lava Beds, California. Major John Green receives the Medal of Honor for his courageous actions leading his men over the lava, against the concealed Indians.

January 27th 1863 - Colonel Patrick Edward Connor, 3rd California Infantry, attacks the Shoshones under Chief Bear Hunter at the Battle of Bear River, in the Utah Territory.

March 1863 - Apaches seeking revenge begin attacking settlements while Cavalry is destroying Apache villages and their stock.

December 1863 - The Governor of the Arizona Territory, John N. Goodwin, and his military escort enroute to Fort Whipple encounter friendly Apaches. The troops, assuming all Apaches hostile, open fire, killing approximately 20 warriors. This prevents any further treaties from being signed and Arizona becomes open Territory for raiding Apaches.

October 13th 1864 - Little Buffalo and a force of over 700 warriors cross the Brazos approximately 10 miles outside Fort Belknap, Texas. The Comanches mutilate one man and a boy, raid the Fitzpatrick Ranch, killing one woman by stripping her naked and mutilating her body, then take the other women and children captive.

October 13th 1864 - Thornton Hamby, a Confederate Soldier, assisted by women loading his pistols, holds off an attack by Little Buffalo on the Bragg Ranch. Hamby kills Little Buffalo and the Comanches withdraw.

November 29th 1864 - A promise of peace given to the Indians by Major E. W. Wynkoop is broken, and more than 600 Colorado State Militiamen under the command of Colonel I. M. Chivington attack the reservation in the vicinity of Fort Lyon, Colorado.

May 12th 1865 - A contingent of the 1st Nebraska Veteran Cavalry are attacked by Indians at Gilman's Ranch, Nebraska.

May 19th 1866- Colonel Henry B. Carrington's troops leave Fort Kearny, Nebraska, guided by Jim Bridger the Indian scout. They reach Fort Laramie on June 16th, with intentions of rebuilding Fort Connor on the Bozeman Trail, plus building two additional Forts about 100 miles apart. (Fort Connor is renamed Fort Reno).

July 1866 - George Armstrong Custer, now finished with the war (between the states), spends time as Commanding Officer in Texas and returns to civilian life, receives a commission as Lieutenant Colonel in the newly formed 7th Cavalry which will be deployed against the Indians. Custer joins the Regiment during 1867 at Fort Riley, Kansas and the legend begins anew. The U.S. is pushing West. The rails are stretching through Indian Territory and the Army is going to have to protect the settlers and the trains. There is no doubt that major confrontations are coming.

July 15th 1866. - Colonel Carrington's men begin building Fort Kearny. Indians attack logging parties nine times between July 14th and July 29th.

August 1866 - Two men, Gilchrist and Johnson, are captured by the Indians near Fort Kearny.

October 31st 1866 - Fort Kearny is complete. A Stars and Stripes holiday is celebrated and the troops watch the First Garrison Flag fly over the Fort.

December 6th 1866 - Lt. Bingham and Sgt. Bowers are killed during an engagement with Indians near Ft. Kearny. Lt. Grummond escapes, thanks to the speed of his horse, making it safely back to the Fort.

December 21st 1866 - The Sioux attack a lumber train, commanded by Captain Brown, outside of Fort Kearny. Captain Fetterman previously boasted, "GIVE ME EIGHTY MEN AND I'LL RIDE THROUGH THE ENTIRE SIOUX NATION". A relief force of 81 men led by Captain Fetterman would be sent to relieve the beleaguered train, with direct orders not to move any further. He encounters a huge Sioux war party.

December 22nd 1866 - Colonel Carrington and 80 men search for Fetterman's command. He leaves Fort Kearny only lightly defended while searching.

December 22nd-24th 1866 - A Frontiersman, John "Portugee" Phillips, begins a 235 mile journey through Indian country, hoping to arrive at Fort Laramie to get reinforcements for Fort Kearny. He arrives on Christmas Eve and as he enters the gates of the Fort, his horse falls down dead. This gallant ride is accomplished by a Civilian Volunteer because no Soldier would do it. General Sherman subsequent to receiving the information begins to procure Springfield Rifles which arrive in the Spring to act as an equalizer for the Army.

January 3rd 4867 - In an official letter from Colonel Carrington to the Assistant Adjutant General, Omaha, Nebraska: "THE GREAT REAL FACT IS THAT THESE INDIANS TAKE ALIVE WHEN POSSIBLE AND SLOWLY TORTURE:' "IT IS THE OPINION OF DR. S.M. HORTON THAT NOT MORE THAN SIX WERE KILLED BY BALLS. THE WHOLE ARROWS - HUNDREDS OF WHICH WERE REMOVED FROM NAKED BODIES, WERE ALL USED AFTER REMOVAL OF CLOTHING:' This defeat at Fort Kearny, to which Carrington refers, has been remembered as "FETTERMAN'S FOLLY:'

February 1867 - Sgt. George Grant, Company E, 18th U.S. Infantry, during the month of February, is used to dispatch important messages between the command at Fort Phil Kearny and Fort C.F. Smith in the Dakota Territory. This dangerous assignment has him battling severe weather, including blizzards and rain, in addition to continual attacks by hostile Indians. His valor and bravery during this most important assignment earn him the Medal of Honor.

March 1st 1867 - Nebraska is admitted to the Union as the 37th State.

March 22nd, 1867 - American troops depart Fort Kansas, heading for the Plains to confront Cheyennes in Kansas. The command includes Infantry and Artillery. The 7th Cavalry participates in this expedition. The expeditionary force arrives at Fort Lamed, Kansas during April. General Hancock orders Edward Wynkoop to direct the Cheyenne leaders to come to the Fort for a parley. Afterwards, the Indians are ordered to come to the Fort with the entire tribe but complications set in and the Indians do not arrive as expected. This prompts Hancock to set out after the Cheyenne.

April 15th-May 2nd, 1867- The Army under Hancock moves towards the Cheyenne camp at Pawnee Fork. An altercation is imminent but the Cheyenne under Roman Nose withdraw to their camp and are shortly surrounded by the 7th Cavalry. During the night, the Indians evacuate the camp to the embarrassment of Hancock's command. Orders are given to give chase but the end result is fruitless. The Indians scatter and disappear on the plains. As the Army pursues the Indians, the Indians strike along the Smoky Hill Line. The 7th Cavalry returns to Fort Hays during the beginning of May without capturing any Indians. The village at Pawnee Fork has been burned by the Army because the Cheyenne have fled. General Hancock returns to Larned with the Infantry. Hancock's expedition ends without success. He eventually meets Custer at Fort Hays and shortly thereafter returns to Fort Leavenworth. The Indians are on the warpath and Custer is stranded at Fort Hays until his troop is ready to initiate the pursuit.

June 1867 - Custer departs Fort Hays searching for hostiles.

June 24th, 1867 - A band of Pawnee Indians attack Custer's encampment at the Republican River. Custer's pickets are on the alert and quickly respond. The entire troop is up and firing in an instant against these OglaIas, led by Pawnee Killer. Later in the day, another band of Indians appears within range of the 7th Cavalry. Custer dispatches 50 troopers, led by Captain Louis Hamilton to pursue.

June 1867 - The troops at Fort Phil Kearny receive new "breech-loader" Springfield 50 calibre rifles. They are the first troops in Indian country to receive them.

June 29th 1867 - The U.S. 9th Cavalry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Wesley Merritt advances along Limpia Creek in Texas to reestablish Fort Davis. The 9th Cavalry is a newly organized Colored Regiment. Fort Davis will later be Garrisoned by 12 companies of combined Infantry and Cavalry. These Colored troops are called "Buffalo Soldiers" by the Indians. 2nd Lieutenant Henry Ossian Flipper, the first black graduate of West Point, is stationed at Fort Davis.

July 7th 1867 - Custer departs his position on the Republican River and heads for Fort Wallace. Several men desert the command and Custer, concerned about discipline and survival of the command, orders the men pursued with orders to kill them. Three men are captured and shot. Custer is aware that a small detachment led by Lieutenant Lyman Kidder has been dispatched by Sherman to locate Custer's command and deliver orders directing Custer to Fort Wallace. Custer rushes towards Fort Wallace and searches for the Kidder detachment. Four days later, on the 11th, the detachment is located. Unfortunately, the men had been massacred by the hostiles and the ten bodies had been horrendously mutilated.

July 12th, 1867- Custer's command reaches Fort Wallace, Kansas. The horses are tired and there has still been little contact with the hostiles. The Indians on the other hand have been raiding all over the Territory leaving, wrecked telegraph lines and hundreds of dead whites in their wake. The detachment of Lt. Kidder has killed two braves before they are annihilated and they are to date, the on1y Indians known to have been killed by the Army since the beginning of the campaign by Hancock earlier in the year. Custer cancels the campaign and begins to move his command towards Fort Harker, Kansas to resupply the command. The Indians still hold the upper hand against the Army on the Plains. The Forts are scattered along the Plains but their numbers are insufficient to protect such a wide area. The Indians, although great in numbers, are not armed with enough weapons to match the Army's firepower at the Forts so they concentrate on quick hit and run raids and ambushes of supply trains. The trains "Iron Horses" - are penetrating deeper into the Plains causing more difficulty for the Indians who now have more competition going after the buffalo. (July 1867)

August 2nd 1867 - "WAGONBOX FIGHT" - Approximately 40 Soldiers and Civilians are surrounded and attacked by a force of over 1,500 Sioux warriors near Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. This command is armed with the new breech-loaded rifles. e Soldiers to beat off the attack known as the "WAGONBOX FIGHT' As the Sioux approach, Sgt. Samuel Gibson and two other Soldiers leave their post without orders, with Gibson explaining the reason for leaving the post to their Captain. The Captain's response: "YOU HAVE DONE NOBLY MY BOY:' "MEN FIND A PLACE IN THE WAGON BOXES, YOU WILL HAVE TO FIGHT FOR YOUR LIVES TODAY:" Captain Powell responds to the savage charge, "MEN HERE THEY COME! TAKE YOUR PLACES AND SHOOT TO KILL:" In other activity, Indians also attack a Hay detail commanded by Lieutenant Sigismund Sternberg near Fort Smith.

August 3rd, 1867 - The Indians, under Crazy Horse, had attempted to trick Captain Powell into a trap (Wagonbox Fight), such as that used against Fetterman, but the plan was unsuccessful. This is the last major assault against Fort Kearny on the Bozeman Trail. Crazy Horse concentrates on smaller raids.

March 1868 - The U.S. decision to abandon Forts Kearny, Reno and Smith is made by President Grant after consultation with Sherman. During the following month, a treaty will be signed at Fort Laramie.

March- 1868- - Outlaws attack a powder train, heading from Fort Harker to Fort Dodge, Kansas, in the vicinity of Plum Creek, Kansas. Sgt. James Fegan, 3rd U.S. Infantry, singlehandedly repels the attack, wounding two of the bandits and chasing off the rest. The train arrives safely at Fort Dodge.

April 1868 - The Treaty of Laramie is signed guaranteeing about one half of South Dakota to the Sioux as a reservation. The Black Hills were a part of this area and considered sacred ground to the Indians. Fort Laramie, previously a fur trading outpost in Wyoming, was purchased by the U.S. Government during 1849 to be used as an Army Post to protect the Oregon Trail. Subsequently during the mid-1870's, the Fort sees extensive service against the Sioux and Cheyenne.

May 1868 - The Indians on the plains still control most of the terrain. The Army has not been able to contain the many raids that have been sprung all across Kansas. General Sherman is becoming distressed at the situation and as summer rolls along, decisions will unfold to reinitiate campaigns against the Plains Indians.

May 30th 1868- Pvt. Edgar R. Aston, 8th U.S. Cavalry and two additional men, through their perilous movements, secure a safe passageway from the valley in San Carlos, Arizona for an immobilized Infantry column. Their mission goes through hostile Apache terrain.

July 1868 - The U.S. Army begins to dismantle its Garrisons that stretch along the Montana Road.

July 25th 1868 - Wyoming becomes a United States Territory.

August 1868 - Fort Phil Kearny is abandoned by the Army after reaching an agreement with Chief Red Cloud of the Sioux nation.

August 1868 - General Sheridan directs Major George Forsyth to recruit 50 frontiersmen from the Garrisons of Forts Hays and Harker in Kansas. These specialized troops will be used against Chief Roman Nose.

September-October 1868 - The U.S. Cavalry would initiate campaigns against Indians in Kansas and Colorado. The intent is to track down the Cheyenne warriors under Chief Roman Nose. General Sheridan dispatches Colonel George Alexander Forsyth and approximately 50 men from Fort Hays, Kansas, for the mission. This campaign ends in October, when reinforcements are rushed to the Cavalry's aid at Beecher's Island on the 27th.

September 2nd 1868 - A detachment of four men would be attacked by a hostile force of approximately 50 Indians in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, Kansas. Corporal Leander, 3rd U.S. Infantry, comes to their aid and the detachment holds out until reinforcements arrive to drive the attackers away.

September 24th, 1868 - A telegram is received by General Custer at his present home in Michigan where he and his wife have been staying since he was suspended from duty for allegations that he had deserted his position at Fort Wallace and had deserters shot. Custer was suspended for one year on October 10th, 1867 but his main accuser had not been present at the court martial. The dismal situation of the Army on the Plains prompts the telegram from Generals Sheridan, Sully and Sherman, to report for duty and assume command of the 7th Cavalry. Custer hardly places the telegram down before he is preparing to jump on the next train heading to Fort Hays, Kansas.

October 1868 - Custer drills his command heavily, instilling discipline, sharpshooting, horseback training and the ability to force march. Custer is preparing his command to take on the hostiles. As the 7th completes its training there are several skirmishes with renegade Indians who begin attacking wagon trains and the herds in the vicinity of Fort Hays.

October 17th 1868 - THE BATTLE OF BEECHER'S ISLAND - (Yuma County, Colorado) - Fifty Frontier scouts under the command of Col. George Alexander Forsyth face approximately 600 Indians comprised of Northern Cheyenne, Sioux and Arapahoes, under Chief Roman Nose. Two Volunteers, StilIwell and Trudeau, sneak away dressed as Indians, to get reinforcements from Fort Wallace.

October 21st 1868 - This day an earthquake extensively damages San Francisco, California.

November 11th 1868 - A contingent of the U.S. 8th Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians at Cienaga Springs, Utah.

November 12th 1868 - The U.S. Army initiates its winter campaign against the Sioux as Sheridan and Custer depart Fort Hays, Kansas heading for the Oklahoma Panhandle to destroy the Indians at their winter camps. These Indian encampments have not been previously endangered by the Army and the Indians feel safe that they could continue their raids into Kansas and Texas. The columns of Infantry and Cavalry head south to a point on the North Canadian River where Camp Supply will be established just across the Kansas border within quick striking range of the Panhandle. A vicious blizzard will hit the area during the latter part of the month and play an important part in the plan to locate the Indians. The Cavalry, using the miserable weather to their advantage, move out on the 23rd with the music of "The Girl I Left Behind Me" easing the strain of the difficult journey ahead. Several days later, Custer's troops discover Indian tracks and realize the kill is near. The Cavalry successfully follows the trail and will locate the main camp which is at Kettle Island on the Washita. The Cavalry has finally found a large force of the enemy after years of frustration. Reconnaissance is carried out and the 7th will prepare to attack from four sides at the first beam of sunlight on the 29th.

November  29th 1868 - BATTLE OF BLACK KETTLE ISLAND - U.S. troops are dispatched from three different Forts with orders to converge upon and strike hostile Indian camps in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The troops which depart Fort Lyons in Colorado are to rendezvous with troops from Fort Bascum and Camp Supply both of which are in New Mexico. The campheld by the Southern Cheyenne is located on the Washita, Oklahoma Territory. Captain Lewis M. Hamilton (Grandson of Alexander Hamilton) is kiled at the battle. Also, Chief Black Kettle is killed at this action.

November 30th 1868 - Custer's victory over Chief Black Kettle has presented several problems. The captured horses have to be destroyed before they pull back and the captives are taken back to Camp Supply. The official losses have been slim to Custer's command but one contingent branches off in pursuit of escaping braves and is later found killed. The village contains various articles that prove the Indians have participated in raids against the whites and although the raid did cost the lives of some women and children, it has been noted that it was hard to distinguish which was which especially when some women and children bore arms. Custer feigns a march against the other villages along the Washita but when darkness falls, the 7th changes direction and returns to Camp Supply. Two white captives are murdered by the Indians as the Cavalry attack.

December 5th 1868 - A contingent of U.S. Cavalry commanded by Major Andrew Evans engages a Comanche war party at the northern fork of the Red River in the Battle of Soldier Spring.

March 15th 1869 - Lt. Colonel Custer captures four Chiefs at Medicine Arrows and Little Robe (Cheyenne villages in the Oklahoma Panhandle). Custer demands the release of two white women or he will hang three of the four chiefs. The Sioux would release the women captives and the Indians subsequently surrender.

May 16th 1869 - Hostile Indians attack a Cavalry scouting party led by Lt. John B. Babcock, 5th U S Cavalry, at Spring Creek, Nebraska.

June 4th 1869 - The Army and hostile Indians engage at Picacho Mountain, Arizona.

Summer 1869- Wlnter 1871 - The Indians have kept active with raids in various locations across the Plains. Sporadic actions listed take note of many instances where the Cavalry is involved with skirmishes; many of which have prompted troopers to display extraordinary courage that has them receive the Medal of Honor. General Custer spends the summer and winter based at Fort Hays and devotes much time to keeping his command in top shape.

July 3rd 1869 - The U.S. Cavalry engages hostile Indians at Hell Canyon, Arizona. Sgt. Sanford Brad-bury is the recipient of the Medal of Honor for bravery during this action. Another Soldier, Corporal Paul Haupt of the 8th Cavalry, also receives the Medal of Honor.

July 8th 1869 - A detachment of three men led by Corporal John Kyle, Company M, 5th U.S. Cavalry, skirmishes with an Indian force of  eight braves in the vicinity of Republican River, Kansas. Sgt. Co-Rux-Te-Chod-Ish (Mad Bear) is accidentally wounded by his own command as he breaks ranks in an attempt to capture a hostile Indian. Mad Bear, the Indian Scout, also receives the Medal of Honor for his heroism during this battle.

July 11th 1869 - The U.S. 5th Cavalry along with Indian scouts under the command of Major Eugene Carr, engage the "Dog Soldier" Cheyennes at Summit Springs, Colorado.

August 25th 1869 - The Army battles hostile Indians at the Agua Fria River, Seneca Mountain, in Arizona.

September 23rd 1869 - The U.S. 8th Cavalry clashes with an Indian force at Red Creek, Arizona.

October 14th 1869 - Pvt. David Goodman 8th U.S. Cavalry becomes the recipient of the Medal of Honor for bravery in action against the Indians at Lyry Creek, Arizona.

October 20th 1869 - The Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona. Corporal Charles H. Dickens, 8th U.S. Cavalry, becomes the recipient of the Medal of Honor for his heroism during this engagement. Pvt. Edwin Elwood also receives the Medal of Honor for gallantry.

October 28th 1869 - 1st Lt. George E. Albee of the 41st U.S. Infantry, along with two other Soldiers, encounter and attack a force of eleven Warriors at Brazos River, Texas.

April 15th 1870- Brigadier General George Stoneman assumes command of the Arizona Territory.

May 15th 1870 - The Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians at Little Blue, Nebraska. Pvt. Heth Canfield and Pvt. Michael Himmelsback, both of the 2nd U.S. Cavalry, would become recipients of the Medal of Honor for gallantry during this action.

May 20th 1870 - A detachment of the 9th Cavalry while on a scouting mission in the vicinity of Kickapoo Springs, Texas, engages a hostile Indian force. Sgt. Emanuel Stance of the 9th Cavalry, receives the Medal of Honor for heroism during this action.

July 12th 1870 - The Army would engage Indians at Wichita River, Texas. The 6th U.S. Cavalry participates.

October 5th 1870 - The U.S. Cavalry engages a band of hostile Indians at Wichita River, Texas.

January 24th 1871 - An Indian raiding party crosses the Red River into Young County, Texas, ambushing a small wagon train.

April 30th 1871 - Infuriated civilians would destroy a peaceful Apache village in the vicinity of Camp Grant, Arizona, in retaliation for an Apache raid on American settlers. This confrontation initiates additional war between the whites and Apaches. The Apaches continue fighting until 1886. The leaders of the Grant massacre are arrested but subsequently exonerated by a Tucson jury.

May 5th 1871 - The Army engages hostile Indians in the Whetstone Mountains, Arizona.

May 18th 1871 - WAGON TRAIN MASSACRE - A teamster who escapes the brutal attack, described what happened, including the wounded teamster: "TIED HIS HEAD DOWN ON WAGON WHEEL, RIPPING OUT HIS TONGUE AND BUILT A FIRE UNDER HIS FACE THEN TOOK AXES, CUTTING THE DEAD TO PIECES:" This story convinces Sherman to order pursuit on the 19th. This occurs at Cox Mountain, Texas, near Fort Richardson. The Apaches who set up the ambush at Salt Creek Prairie, Texas allow a small wagon train to pass through safely, while they waited for the larger train that follows. General William Tecumseh Sherman was with the first train. After discovering that the wagon train had been wiped out, he orders the arrest of three Kiowa leaders Satanta, Big Tree, and Satank. Chief Satank is killed while attempting to escape. Chiefs Big Tree and Satanta are tried and convicted, receiving prison terms of two years. Subsequently, during 1876, Satanta, while in custody, chooses to take his own life.

June 4th 1871 - Lt. Col. George Crook replaces General Stoneman as commander of Arizona Territory.

September 1871 - The 7th Cavalry receives orders to depart Fort Hays and report for duty in the South. Custer and his 7th Cavalry are separated into smaller commands and given responsibility for seven states. The Regiments main headquarters is at Elizabethtown, Kentucky.

October 10th 1871 - Hostile Indians attack the Army on the Brazos River, Texas.

January 1872 - General Sheridan directs Custer to report for special duty to escort the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia on a hunting expedition on the Plains while the Duke is visiting the United States. General Custer becomes such a success with the Royal visitor that Sheridan permits Custer to remain with the Duke for the balance of his tour. Subsequently, during February, 1873, Custer gets his wish. Orders arrive to regroup the 7th and take the Regiment to Fort Abraham Lincoln, outside of Bismark, North Dakota. The Army anticipates trouble with the Sioux who are living in the area where the Northern Pacific Railroad is about to penetrate, especially since the Sioux expect no white men or Iron Horses because of the treaty of 1868.

March 28th 1872 - A detachment of the U.S. 4th Cavalry, in pursuit of cattle thieves running from New Mexico are intercepted at Colorado Valley, Texas. Sgt. Wilson receives a Medal of Honor for his heroism and he receives a second award later at Red River, Texas.

April 26th 1872 - A detachment of the 3rd U.S. Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians at Loupe Fort, on Platte River, Nebraska.

May 23rd 1872 - The U.S. Cavalry engages the Tonto Apaches at Sycamore Canyon, Arizona.

July 13th 1872 - During an engagement between a contingent of the U.S. Cavalry and hostile Indians at Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, pvt. Michael Glynn, 5th U.S. Cavalry, singlehandedly fights 8 Indians, killing or wounding 5, and driving the rest away.

August 5th 1872 - A contingent of the 11th U.S. Infantry drives off a band of Indians who attack a mail train near Fort Griffin, Texas.

August 27th 1872 - Sgt. James Brown, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry, in command of a detachment of 3 troopers defeats a larger force of hostile Indians at Davidson Canyon in the vicinity of Camp Crittendon, Arizona.

August 1872 - The U.S. 2nd Cavalry, operating from positions along the Yellowstone River, reach striking distance of the Sioux under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull who are encamped near the Powder River in eastern Montana. The hostiles spot the Cavalry and the Infantry which accompanies them to insure the safety of American engineers who are establishing the rails. The Sioux strike the Army encampment at Arrow Creek on the 14th and the skirmishing continues for several hours most of it from fair distances. Chief Crazy Horse is uninjured, but his horse is shot from under him during one of the charges.

September 8th 1872 - During a clash with hostile Indians at Date Creek, Arizona, Sgt. Frank E. Hill, 5th U.S. Cavalry, despite his severe wounds, captures a hostile Apache Chief. Hill will be a recipient of the Medal of Honor for his heroism during this action.

September 29th 1872 - The U.S. 4th Cavalry would engage a hostile Indian force at Red River, Texas. Sgt. William Foster and Pvt. Edward Brannigan become recipients of the Medal of Honor for their actions during this battle.

November 1872 - The Modoc Indians would begin an uprising along the California-Oregon boundary lines. The Modocs are deeply entrenched in the lava beds of northern California.

December 27th-28th 1872- BATTLE OF SKULL CAVE - Troops under the command of Lt. Col. George Crook engage Apaches under Chief Nanni Chaddi. The engagement takes place near Camp Verde, Arizona. Also, Captain W. H. Brown with a detachment of the 5th Cavalry and a number of Apache scouts, attack hostile Apaches in the Arizona-Tonto Basin Country.

January 2nd 1873 - Pvt.. James Lenihan of the 5th Cavalry receives the Medal of Honor for heroism during an engagement with Indians at Clear Creek, Arizona.

January 17th 1873-U.S. troops engage with Modocs at the Lava beds in California. The Indians holding invincible positions continue to fire at troops all day. Nightfall permits the Army to withdraw from the invisible enemy.

January 22nd 1873 - The U.S. Cavalry engages a band of hostile Indians at Tonto Creek, Arizona.

March 1873 - The U.S. Army is moving against the Sioux in the north country. Forts are being constructed along the Missouri River in North Dakota in addition to others being built on the outskirts of Sioux Territory. Events of 1872 prompts the Army to bolster forces against the Sioux. Custer departs Memphis, Tennessee with a large force and Colonel Stanley (Civil War Major General by Brevet) is also heading towards Fort Lincoln with a strong force of troops and civilians. Stanley is the Commanding Officer during the journey.

March 25th 1873 - The 5th Cavalry would engage with a group of hostile Indians at Turret Mountain, Arizona. Sgt. Daniel Fisher receives the Medal of Honor for his heroism during this action. Another engagement between the 5th Cavalry and Indians occurs on the 27th.

March 27th 1873 - A contingent of Soldiers engages an Indian force at Turret Mountain, Arizona. 1st Sgt. William Allan 23rd U.S. Infantry receives the Medal of Honor for gallantry during this action.

April 6th 1873 - A Peace Treaty is signed with the Apaches at Camp Verde, Arizona. The Treaty gains Crook the rank of Brigadier General.

April 11th 1873- General Canby, while under a flag of truce, is murdered by the Modoc Chief Captain Jack and his warriors. American troops ultimately flush out the Modocs and execute those responsible for the brutal murder. In addition to the death of General Canby, the Reverend Eleaser Thomas is also killed by the Modocs.

May 4th 1873 - General Sheridan orders Mackenzie to take the 4th Cavalry to Fort Clark (20 miles from the Rio Grande), and: "TAKE WHATEVER ACTION YOUR OWN JUDGEMENT DEEMS FITTING" This order appeared to include crossing into Mexico to stop the Indian raids, even at the cost of a fight with Mexican troops.

May 6th 1873 - The U.S. Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians in the Santa Maria Mountains, in Arizona. Sam Hoover, a Bugler with Company A, 1st U.S. Cavalry, receives the Medal of Honor for heroism during this engagement.

May 17th 1873 - General Mackenzie and approximately 400 men of the 4th Cavalry cross the Rio Grande into Mexico and on the 18th attacks three Apache villages near Santa Rosa. No conflict between the Cavalry and the Mexicans develops.

June- July 1873 - The U.S. Cavalry and hostile Indians become embroiled in many skirmishes in the vicinity of Castle Done and the Santa Maria Mountains, Arizona.

July 8th-11th 1873 - The U.S. Cavalry engages hostile Indians in the vicinity of Fort Selden, New Mexico.

July 1873 - The Army expedition force reaches the mouth of the Powder River by the end of July but not to the surprise of the Sioux who are aware of the progress of the expedition. Within a few days, the two forces begin to engage at the mouth of the Tongue River.

August 4th, 1873 - The Sioux begin to tangle with the Cavalry. As the 7th awaits the balance of the force, they post pickets and relax along the Tongue River. Sioux Warriors make a dash towards Custer's position, hoping to draw the Cavalry into a trap. Firing erupts but the horses do not stampede and the advance Cavalrymen send out a detail to get the hostiles. As the troopers encroach the woods, they halt and as it turns out, make the proper decision. The woods were hiding the main war party. Some of the hidden warriors are from the same band who massacred Fetterman's command at Fort Kearny. Custer, a genuine Yankee Doodle, and his horse called "Dandy" have outrun the galloping Sioux, foiling the day for Crazy Horse. The Cavalry detachment is rejoined by the remainder of the main body and 85 Soldiers pour fire upon the attackers scattering them in all directions. The 7th then remounts and drives the Indians away. Casualties are light on both sides.

August 8th-11th, 1873- Bloody Knife, Custer's trusted Crow Scout, locates a Sioux village and after Custer is informed, the 7th Cavalry begins to move against the Sioux. They approach the village on the 9th, anticipating a surprise assault but the Sioux have moved across the Yellowstone River. The current is an obstacle which prevents pursuit. The Sioux, eagerly awaiting a chance to kill Custer in revenge for the 7th's attack on Chief Black Kettle, rise early on the 11th and move against Custer, firing from the opposing bank of the Yellowstone.

October 3rd 1873 - Modoc Chiefs Captain Jack, Boston Charley, Black Jim and Schonchin are hanged on the Parade Field of Fort Klamath.

Spring of 1874 - General Sheridan authorizes the establishment of a Fort in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Custer's 7th Cavalry is subsequently dispatched from Fort Lincoln which is to be the main base camp.

April 2nd 1874 - The U.S. Cavalry skirmishes with hostile Indians at Apache Creek, Arizona.

June 8th 1874 - Cochise dies and his son Taza becomes head of the Chiricahua Apaches.

June 27th 1874 - A group of American hunters are attacked at dawn by a combined Cheyenne-Kiowa and Comanche war party, but the Americans manage to successfully repel the attack. There are 28 buffalo hunters who hold off approximately 700 Indians at 'Adobe Walls" in the Texas panhandle.

July 2nd 1874 - Custer's force moves out of Fort Lincoln with trains numbering over 100 wagons, two companies of Infantry, a piece of heavy artillery, several Gatling guns, complemented by ten companies of the 7th Cavalry. In addition, Custer assembles a large group of Indian scouts, including Bloody Knife, his trusted Crow companion. The American expeditionary force approaches the hills towards the latter part of July and enters the Black Hills on the 25th, and makes camp in what would be present day Custer, South Dakota on the 27th. The troops remain in the hills for several weeks before returning to Fort Lincoln with information that the Black Hills are not being used by the Sioux. The expedition returns to Fort Lincoln with the entire trip being uncontested by the Sioux, a fact which has never been explained or fully understood.

July 20th 1874 - Washington gives General Sheridan authority to wage war on any and all hostile Indians.

August 30th 1874 - Colonel Nelson A. Miles' command intercepts Kiowa and Comanches leaving their reservation, and inflicts heavy casualties on them in the Antelope Hills of Oklahoma.

September 9th-11th 1874 - The U.S. Army engages in heavy fighting with hostile Indians in the vicinity of Upper Washita, Texas.

September 12th 1874- BUFFALO WALLOW FIGHT -Four enlisted men and two Army scouts come under attack by withstand a ferocious attack by 125 Comanche and Kiowa Indians in present-day Hemphill County, Texas.

September 24th-27th 1874 - General Ranald Mackenzie's troops on a search and destroy mission, discover the winter camp of the Kiowa-Comanches, located in the Palo Duro Canyon, near Amarillo, Texas.

November 1st 1874 - Sgt. Bernard Taylor Company A. 5th U.S. Cavalry, receives the Medal of Honor for courage in rescuing Lt. King of the 5th Cavalry from hostile Indians in the vicinity of Sunset Pass, Arizona.

December 2nd 1874 - Hostile Indians engage the 6th Cavalry at Gageby Creek in the Indian Territory.

December 8th 1874 - The U.S. Cavalry engages and pursues hostile Indians at Staked Plains, Muchague Valley, Texas.

April 12th 1875 - Alchesay, Sgt. of Indian Scouts, receives the Medal of Honor for heroism during the campaigns against the Apache, during the winter of 1872-73. Another courageous Indian Scout, Corporal Elsatsoosu, also becomes the recipient of the Medal of Honor for consistent bravery during the Apache campaign.

April 23rd 1875 - A detachment of 6 men from the U.S. 6th Cavalry, including Private Peter Gardiner and Pvt. Simpson, sneaks behind Cheyenne lines at Sappa Creek, Kansas. This surprise attack causes the hostile Indians to withdraw from their once formidable positions, allowing the main column of the 6th Cavalry to proceed without further harassment.

April 25th 1875 - Isaac Payne, a trumpeter of Indian Scouts and three other men attack a hostile force of 25 Indians at Pecos River, Texas.

June 12th 1875 - Taza, Chief of the Chiricahua and approximately 325 of his people, begin a move to the San Carlos Reservation. Nearly 400 Apaches refuse, fleeing to Mexico. Among those who flee, is Geronimo.

July 9th 1875 - General Crook headquartered at Big Horn, Montana, requires important messages be communicated between himself and his staggered forces to insure the safety of his command, including those in the field. Private. James Bell Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry risks his life by volunteering to successfully carry these most important documents through Indian terrain, keeping General Crook informed of the situations concerning the success of his campaign.

1876-1879 - Renegade Apaches initiate raids until their skirmishes turn into full-scale warfare. Apaches, under Victorio Mimbreno, upon his death, follow Nana into the Sierra Madre Mountains, joining there with Geronimo.

March 1st 1876 - General George Crook departs Fort Fetterman, Wyoming with just under 1,000 troops, heading up the Bozeman Trail towards the Powder River.

March 17th 1876 - Colonel J.J. Reynolds attacks the encampment of Crazy Horse on the Powder River. The Indians counterattack and Colonel Reynolds withdraws to rejoin General Crook.

April 28th 1876 - A contingent of the U.S. 23rd Infantry clashes with hostile Indians near Fort Hartstuff, Nebraska.

May 1876 - General Terry and Lt. Col. Custer~depart Fort Abraham Lincoln, Nebraska, heading for the Yellowstone River in search of the Sioux and Cheyenne camps. In addition, Colonel John Gibbon's command is advancing from Fort Ellis, Montana to rendezvous with the troops of Terry and another column commanded by General Crook which departed Fort Fetterman, Wyoming Territory. The combined force is to assault and destroy the hostile encampments but as the converging troops are advancing on their objective, obstacles interrupt the plan.

May 17th-18th 1876 - The 7th Cavalry departs Fort Lincoln heading for the Black Hills. It was touchy for a while whether or not Custer would be with the Regiment because of several personal problems stemming from politics, but after a last minute plea and the intercession of General Terry, Custer moves out with the 7th, marching to the tune of "The Girl I Left Behind Me" The famed Battle of Little Big Horn is one march away and the gallant 7th Cavalry unknowingly rides to immortality.

June 1876 - Geronimo initiates raids in Sonora, Mexico, stealing horses, mules and cattle, moving them north across the border for sale in New Mexico. These raids continue until March, 1877.

June 17th 1876 - BATTLE OF ROSEBUD - Scouts under General Crook's command discover a force of Sioux and Cheyenne approaching Crook's column which is halted at the Rosebud River. The Indians engage Crook's command in a heated six-hour battle.

June 21st 1876 - General Terry, Colonel Gibbon and Custer meet aboard the Steamboat Far West to discuss battle plans against the Indians. The scouts determine they will find the Indians on a stream called "Grassy Grass", also known as "Little Big Horn" The following day, the U.S. 7th Cavalry pass in review in front of General Terry prior to their march against the Sioux at the Little Big Horn.

June 25th-27th 1876- THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIG HORN -

June 27th 1876 - As America was preparing for its 100th Birthday, telegraph lines throughout the country are announcing the national disaster at the Little Big Horn on the plains of the Dakotas .

July 8th-11th 1876 - The U.S. Cavalry is constantly engaged with hostile Indians in the area protected by Fort Seldon, New Mexico.

July 9th 1876 - Once again important dispatches pertaining to the well-being of the Army necessitate the transport of important dispatches from the field to General Crook at Big Horn, Montana. Pvt. William Evans 7th U.S. Infantry, volunteers to get the messages through. He successfully evades capture and death while traveling through treacherous Sioux Territory. Evans becomes a recipient of the Medal of Honor for this most courageous mission.

July 17th 1876 - BATTLE OF WARBONNET CREEK -Col. Wesley Merritt and his 5th Cavalry of Fort Robinson, Nebraska, attack the Cheyenne in the vicinity of Fort Robinson. William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill) becomes a national hero because of his actions at this battle.

August 1st 1876 - Colorado is admitted to the Union as the 38th State and, North Dakota on the same day as the 39th State.

September 9th 1876 - Colonel Anson Mills and his troops engage Indians under Crazy Horse at Slim Buttes, Dakota Territory.

October 21st 1876-January 8th 1877- The U.S. Army and Cavalry clash with hostile Indians at Cedar Creek and other locations in Montana.

November 25th 1876 - A contingent of the U.S. 4th Cavalry is attacked by a superior force of hostile Indians at Powder River, Wyoming.

November 26th 1876 - Mackenzie's forces engage Cheyennes at the Battle of the Big Horn Mountains. These troops are under the command of General Crook.

January 8th 1877- BATTLE OF WOLF MOUNTAIN -U.S. troops engage a force of more than 500 Sioux and Cheyenne under Chief Crazy Horse, at Wolf Mountain, Montana.

January 13th 1877- A war party of 14 hostile Indians ambushes a five-man detachment of the U.S. 3rd Cavalry in the vicinity of Elkhorn Creek, in Wyoming.

January 20th-22nd 1877 - The U.S. Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians in and around Bluff Station, Wyoming.

January 24th 1877 - A contingent of the 9th U.S. Cavalry is dispatched to attempt to force a band of hostile Apaches to surrender in the Florida Mountains, New Mexico. The Apaches surround and attack the Cavalry.

Spring 1877 - The Nez Perce Indian War breaks out with the killing of settlers in the Idaho Valley.

April 22nd 1877 - Indian Agent John Philip Glum traps and captures Geronimo at Ojo Caliente. Glum proceeds to move all Warm Springs Apaches to San Carlos. They arrive there on May 20th.

May 7th 1877- A Sioux war party attacks the 2nd U.S. Cavalry at Little Muddy Creek, Montana.

June 17th 1877 - Battle of White Bird Canyon - About 100 Cavalry men, dispatched from Fort Lapwai to avenge the death of  four whites, engage warriors under Nez Perce Chief Joseph in the Idaho Territory.

July 11th 1877 - General Oliver Howard departs with just under 500 men (combined Infantry and Cavalry) to catch the Nez Perce Indians. They catch them on the 11th near Clearwater, Idaho, and a bitter two-day battle ensues. During this tremendous battle between the Army and Indians, a detachment of the 4th U.S. Artillery led by Lt. Charles Humphrey, expose themselves to intense fire while recovering an abandoned Howitzer and two Gatling guns, positioned immediately before the Indian positions.

August 9th 1877 - Colonel John Gibbon's troops, including the 7th U.S. Infantry, clash with the Nez Perce Tribe at Big Hole River, Montana.

August 20th 1877 - A small detachment of men from the 1st U.S. Cavalry led by Captain James Jackson, under heavy enemy fire, manages to recover the body of their trumpeter, at great risk to their lives, during the battle at Camas Meadows, Idaho. Pvt. Wilfred Clark, a hero at Big Hole River on the 9th, again shows tremendous valor at this battle.

September 1877 - Victorio leaves the San Carlos Reservation, with more than 300 Apaches to begin raiding and killing settlers. Over 10 ranchers are killed before the Army captures them. The renegades are temporarily returned to the Warm Springs Reservation.

September 30th 1877 - The U.S. 2nd Cavalry and the U.S. 5th Infantry intercept and initiate a five day siege on Chief Joseph's tribe in the vicinity bf Bear Paw Mountain, Montana. The continuing bombardment of U.S. Light Artillery in addition to the Cavalry, forces the surrender of Chief Joseph on October 5, 1877, ending the Nez Perce War. 1st Lt. George W Baird, 5th Infantry, receives the Medal of Honor for heroism during this engagement. Lt. Mason Carter leads a devastating charge inflicting many losses on the enemy. Another detachment led by Capt. Edward Godfrey also causes severe casualties to the Indians. Godfrey is badly wounded, but insists on continuing his successful charge.

December 14th 1877 - Sgt. James Brogan, Company G, 6th U.S. Cavalry, singlehandedly fights off two hostile Indians. Brogan has his horse shot out from under him. Determined to continue the fight, he follows the Indians on foot through Simon Valley, Arizona.

May 30th 1878- Chief Buffalo Horn ravages Southern Idaho, until June 8th, when he is killed by settlers. After the death of Buffalo Horn, his followers move to Steens Mountain, Oregon where braves led by Chief Egan join them.

June 23rd 1878 - Captain Reuben F. Bernard's 1st Cavalry attacks Indians under Chief Egan at Silver Creek, forcing them to retreat. These Indians are Paiute and Bannock.

July 8th 1878 - General Howard's command engages Indians (Umatila) at Birch Creek, but the fleeing Indians reach the Indian Agency at Pendleton, Oregon.

July 13th 1878 - Captain Evan Miles' Infantry engages hostile Indians under Chief Egan at Pandleton, Oregon, driving them away. Chief Egan is pursued by a Umatila who returns with Egan's scalp.

September 4th 1878 - U.S. Cavalry troops defeat the Bannock Indians at Clark's Fork River, Montana, forcing them back onto the reservation.

September 1878- Northern Cheyenne, attempting to leave their prison reservation in Oklahoma to return to their lands in Montana, are pursued by U.S. troops and armed American civilians. The Indians would be hit by constant strikes during their return journey through Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota and Wyoming, until they are almost all lost. Very few who started the journey survive this tragic event of 1878-79.

October 8th 1878 - The Government in Washington orders Victorio and his Apaches moved back to San Carlos Reservation. Victorio refuses and departs with over 100 warriors. Chiracahua and Mescalero Apaches join him in 1879.

January 5th 1879- Orders come from Washington to march the Cheyennes back to the Indian Territory.

January 9th 1879 - Chief Dull Knife and his Cheyennes break out of prison in an attempt to reach the Canadian border where they might join Chief Sitting Bull.

April 10th 1879 - The U.S. Army clashes with hostile Indians at Mizpah Creek, Montana. Sgt. Glover 2nd U.S. Cavalry, while in command of a scouting party, surrounds and captures a Sioux war party.

May 29th 1879 - The U.S. Cavalry engages Indians in the Mimbres Mountains, New Mexico. Sgt. Thomas Boyne 9th U.S. Cavalry, receives the Medal of Honor for bravery during this action. Boyne becomes the recipient of a second Medal of Honor for heroism against the Indians on September 27, 1879, at Ojo Caliente, New Mexico.

September 4th 1879 - Victorio and about 60 Apaches attack and kill 8 guards from the 9th Cavalry and steal their horses. This attack provokes the Victorio War. The Apaches wreak havoc and are chased by the 9th and 10th Cavalry plus Mexican troops. Victorio is finally killed in Mexico during the Battle of Tres Castillos, by Mexican troops.

September 18th 1879 - The U.S. Cavalry would battle hostile Indians at Las Animas Canyon, New Mexico. Lt. Matthias Day, 9th U.S. Cavalry, ventures alone into Indian-held lines to successfully rescue a wounded trooper.

September 19th 1879 - A detachment of Cavalry led by Robert T. Emmett is dispatched to reinforce a trapped command at Animas Canyon, New Mexico.

September 27th 1879- The U.S. Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians at the Cuchillo River in the vicinity of Ojo Caliente, New Mexico.

September 29th - October 5th 1879 - Major Thomas Thornburgh and his force of approximately 22 men would come under siege by a Ute war party led by Chief Jack in the vicinity of White River Agency, Milk River, Colorado. The men hold out against heavy odds until reinforcements (9th Cavalry, Colored) would reach them on October 2nd and lift the siege.

October 20th 1879 - A war party, consisting of 35 braves, would attack a reconnoitering party of three men from the 5th U.S. Cavalry at White River, Colorado.

February 10th 1880 - A U.S. Army scouting party attacks a Sioux war party at Pumpkin Creek, Montana.

April 1st 1880 - The U.S. 2nd Cavalry engages hostile Indians at O'Fallon's Creek, Montana.

May 14th 1880- A detachment of the 9th U.S. Cavalry led by Sgt. George Jordan, is attacked by approximately 100 Indians near Fort Tularosa, New Mexico.

October 15th 1880 - American troops have chased Victorio throughout his raids of 1879-80 at a furious pace, but it was an Indian scout named Mauricio Correvor who catches and kills him on this day.

July 19th 1881 - Chief Sitting Bull returns from Canada to surrender to the Army at Fort Buford, South Dakota.

August 12th 1881 - The 9th U.S. Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians at Carrizos Canyon, New Mexico.

August 16th 1881 - The U.S. 9th Cavalry would clash with hostile Indians at the Cuchillo Negro Mountains, New Mexico. The vicious battle in the foothills lasts nearly four hours.

August 30th 1881 - Colonel Carr and a detachment of 79 men arrest Nakaidoklini, a medicine man at Cibicu Creek, Arizona. An attack by angry White Mountain Apaches occurs that night and the medicine man is killed by his guard. This action prompts additional uprisings by the Apaches. The U.S. Army continues to hunt the elusive Geronimo and other Apaches for several years. Geronimo finally surrenders in 1886. Sgt. Alonzo Bowman, 6th U.S. Cavalry, leads an attack against mutinous scouts during the fight. Bowman and Pvt. Richard Heartery are among those Soldiers who receive the Medal of Honor for bravery.

August 31st 1881 - Colonel Carr's detachment is back at Fort Apache after their recent encounter at Cibicu Creek. Carr's command is again attacked by hostiles the following day by the same White Mountain Apaches.

September 11th 1881 - White Mountain Apaches again attack a contingent of the U.S. Army at Fort Apache, Arizona. Private 1st Class William C. Barnes, attached to the Signal Corps, receives the Medal of Honor for heroism during this attack.

April 23rd 1882 - The U.S. 6th Cavalry clashes with hostile Indians at Horseshoe Canyon, New Mexico.

July 17th 1882 - BATTLE OF BIG DRY FORK - The U.S. 6th Cavalry engages Apaches at Chevalon Creek, Arizona. This is the last major battle between the Army and Indians on Arizona soil.

March 1883- Apaches leave Sonora, Mexico and raid southern Arizona and New Mexico, killing H.C. McComas, a prominent judge and his wife. The Apaches take their son captive. The boy is found dead. These marauding Apaches are led by Chatto.

May 15th 1883 - General Crook surprises Apaches at their Mexican hideout in the Sierras. Crook's command consists of 45 Cavalry troops and 193 Apache scouts.

January 1884 - Lt. Britton Davis is ordered to transport 550 Apaches (men, women and children) to Turkey Creek located about 17 miles outside of Fort Apache, Arizona.

May 18th 1885 - Indian scouts Chatto and Mickey Free (the stepson of John Moore kidnaped by Apaches in the Bascom Affair of 1860) inform Lt. Davis  that Geronimo and many braves have fled the San Carlos Reservation.

May 1885 - Geronimo, having left the reservation near Fort Apache, starts raiding the settlers. He continues this course until September, 1886 when he surrenders for the last time. He is taken after his surrender in Mexico to Fort Bowie, Arizona.

May 1885 - Philip Sheridan, Commanding General of the Army, orders General Crook to move his headquarters closer to the Southern Pacific Railway to better control all troop movements. Crook has 200 additional scouts with him and quickly sets up headquarters at Fort Bowie, Arizona.

June 1885- Lt. Gatewood completes his military mission in New Mexico but it proves uneventful. Gatewood's detachment have searched unsuccessfully for hostile Indians. Upon his return to the Fort, a reporter asks: What about the Indians? Gatewood responded: "WELL, THEY'VE ALL GONE SOUTH AND PROBABLY ACROSS THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC IF THEY HAVEN'T BEEN CAPTURED."

June 2nd 1885 - By this date, Crook has his men convincingly deployed at Fort Bowie. Captain Emmet Crawford with his scouts and Troop A, 6th Cavalry, as well as Lt. Parker 6th Cavalry, search the Black and Mogollon Mountains for Apaches. Another troop under Captain Wirt Davis and the 4th Cavalry leave for Mexico, carrying 60 days rations, with hopes of driving the renegade Indians out of the Sierra Mad res in Sonora. The 10th Cavalry is stationed at every waterhole from the Rio Grande, west to the Patagonia Mountains. General Crook places well over 2,000 troops in the field in an attempt to finish the Apaches.

June 8th 1885 - Apaches under Chihuahua raid a contingent of the 4th Cavalry at Guadalupe Canyon, Arizona, while the Officers are on a scouting patrol.

August 7th 1885 - The command of Wirt Davis strikes at a band of Apaches, thought to be led by Geronimo, killing a few braves, a squaw and child. Fifteen others are captured but Geronimo crisscrosses the Sierras and then back north into New Mexico, successfully evading the Soldiers posted to capture him.

November 23rd-24th 1885 - Josanie, the younger brother of Chihuahua, strikes with surprise near Fort Apache, killing 2 civilians and then attacks the Indian Reservation itself. 20 White Mountain Apaches are murdered.

December 9th 1885 - Troops of the 8th Cavalry commanded by Lt. Samuel W Fountain attack Apaches near Papanosas, New Mexico. The Apaches escape.

December 10th 1885 - Josanie's Apaches attack a ranch, killing 2 settlers and stealing fresh horses. That same afternoon, they ambush a detachment of  Soldiers, killing 5 and wounding two.

December 27th 1885 - Josanie and his renegades reach the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona. Fresh snow in the form of a treacherous blizzard guarantees the Apaches safe arrival in Mexico, out of reach of the pursuing Cavalry. In their ride of terror, they have traveled approximately 1,200 miles, killing 40 people, and stealing countless horses and other livestock. The Apaches evade capture and lose only one brave.

January 8th 1886 - Captain Crawford starts a forced march, 48 hours with no sleep, in hopes of overtaking Geronimo.

January l0th-11th 1886 - Crawford's forces commence an attack on Geronimo's village in the Sierra Madre Mountains, Mexico, from all sides. The horses run off and Geronimo sensing his lost position, shouts: "SCATTER AND GO AS YOU CAN."

January 11th 1886 - A Mexican force of approximately 150 men open fire on Captain Crawford's scouts. Emmet Crawford, in full visible American uniform, climbs atop a huge rock with a white handkerchief in full view, exclaiming: "SOLDADOS AMERICANOS." Crawford simultaneously orders his troops not to fire. Within minutes, another volley of shots from the Mexicans hits Captain Crawford in the head. He never regains consciousness and finally succumbs January 18th, 1886. Crawford's body eventually is retrieved and buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

March 22nd 1886 - A pack train leaves Fort Bowie (with Tom Moore) en route to the Canyon Of  The Tricksters in Mexico, to meet with General Crook to assist in a parley with Geronimo and other Chiefs. General Crook, after seeing the faces of the Indians, describes what he felt: "FIERCE AS SO MANY TIGERS - KNOWING WHAT PITILESS BRUTES THEY ARE THEMSELVES, THEY MISTRUST EVERYONE ELSE."

March 27th 1886 - General Crook receives word the Chiricahuas will surrender. Nachez will also surrender. Geronimo, convinced of Crook's sincerity, is the last of the three to capitulate, stating: "ONCE I MOVED ABOUT LIKE THE WIND, NOW I SURRENDER TO YOU AND THAT IS ALL" Then he shakes the hand of General Crook. The surrender takes place at Canon de los Embudos, Mexico.

March 28th 1886 - General Crook returns to Fort Bowie, leaving Lt. Maos, the scouts and Alchise, to return the renegade Apaches to the Fort.

March 29th 1886 - Geronimo, Nachez and some of the braves decide to leave the return march back to Fort Bowie for they fear treachery and break for their hideaway in the Sonoran Mountains.

March 30th 1886 - General Crook dispatches Lt. Maos and troopers to recapture Geronimo.

April 2nd 1886 - General Nelson Appleton Miles replaces General Crook as Commander of the Department of Arizona. Miles attempts a much tougher stand against the Indians and shows no desire to negotiate as Crook had been doing.

April 11th 1886 - General Miles arrives at Fort Bowie to confer with General Crook.

April 12th 1886 - General Crook departs Bowie Station, Arizona.

April 27th 1886 - Apaches under Geronimo and Nachez strike at the Peck Ranch in the Santa Cruz Valley, killing a few civilians, including Mrs. Peck. Her husband and 13 year old daughter are taken captive by the Apaches.

May 3rd 1886 - The U.S. Cavalry on a search and destroy mission encounters Indians at Pinito Mountains, Sonora, Mexico. The Cavalrymen are not successful in their attempt to capture Geronimo during this engagement. Lt. P. H. Clarke, 10th U.S. Cavalry, risks his life under heavy fire to save the life of a seriously wounded trooper, bringing the man to safety. The Apaches however, continue to evade capture.

May 15th 1886 - The U.S. Cavalry attacks a hostile Apache camp in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Mexico. Once again, Geronimo is not captured. Sgt. Sam Craig 4th U.S. cavalry, exemplifies extreme courage and heroism while under attack by hostile Apaches in Arizona. Daniel's actions during this fight earns him the Medal of Honor.

July 9th 1886 - General Miles, fearful the Apaches might surrender to the Mexicans, reverts to Crook's policy and seeks a negotiated settlement. Miles realizes that his own policy has failed.

November 5th 1887 - General T. H. Ruger issues an ultimatum to the Crow Indians, demanding surrender of the braves who fired on the Indian Agency. The Indians refuse and troops are dispatched to within about a mile of the Little Big Horn. Photo: An Apache raid on settlers. The sight of a child's slipper in the midst of the devastation.. This sketch is known as "The Little One's Slipper" and was drawn during the era.

April 1st 1888 - Cavalry engages hostile Indians at O'Fallon's Creek, Montana.

May 11th 1889 - Robbers unsuccessfully attempt to rob a paymaster's wagon in Arizona. The escort repels the attack. Sgt. Benjamin Brown 24th U.S. Infantry is severely wounded in both the stomach and arms, but his courage and valor during this attack make him a recipient of the Medal of Honor. Corporal Isaiah Mays walks and crawls two miles to a ranch for help.

November 2nd 1889 - South Dakota joins the Union, as the 40th State.

November 8th 1889 - Montana is admitted to the Union, as the 41st State.

November 11th 1899 - Washington is admitted to the Union, becoming the 42nd State.

November 1899-1890- The Indians, anticipating their God's arrival with ghosts of their ancestors, enact a ghost dance to recall the buffalo and spirits of the deceased Indians.

March 7th 1890 - Sgt. James T. Daniels, Company L., 4th U. S. Cavalry exemplifies extreme courage and heroism while under attack by hostile Apaches in Arizona. Daniel's actions during this fight earn him the Medal of Honor.

July 3rd 1890 - Idaho is admitted to the Union becoming the 43rd State.

July 10th 1890 - Wyoming is admitted to the Union as the 44th State.

December 15th 1890 - Chief Sitting Bull is killed by Indian policemen (Lt. Bull Head and Sgt. Red Tomahawk). The remaining Sioux after the death of Sitting Bull flee and follow Chief Big Foot. The U.S. Cavalry begins immediate pursuit.

December 28th 1890 - The Cavalry captures Big Foot and his braves, moving them to Wounded Knee Creek.

December 29th 1890- BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE -

December 30th 1890 - Hostile Indians clash with the 7th Cavalry at White Clay Creek, South Dakota.

January 1st 1891 - The U.S. 6th Cavalry has serious problems in attempting to cross the partly-frozen White River in South Dakota. Lt. Benjamin Cheever heads this dangerous movement, successfully accomplishing the task. Cheever receives the Medal of Honor for his actions during this action. This contingent of the U.S. 6th Cavalry, commanded by Capt. John B. Kerr, engages a force of approximately 300 Brule Sioux warriors, in the vicinity of Little Grass Creek, South Dakota.

January 4th 1896 - Utah is admitted to the Union to become the 45th State.

October 5th 1898 - The Chippewa Indians stage an uprising at Lake Leech in northern Minnesota. The Army puts down the Rebellion. Pvt. Oscar Burkard receives the Medal of Honor for his gallant actions during this uprising. (This is the last Medal of Honor received during the Indian Campaigns.)

1865 through 1898 - During the years 1865 through 1898, many major battles between the Army and the Indians occur... In total, 417 men received the Medal of Honor while in the service of the United States Army during the Indian wars, all Recipients of the Medal of Honor are noted in the back of  the book, A Portrait of the Stars and Stripes, and many of these are cross referenced in the text.