A LONDON LOOP ROAD The North Circular Road links the eastern, northern and western suburbs, and enables through traffic to avoid the congested areas of Central London.
A TRIUMPH OF SPEED The world's record for speed on land was for many years held by Sir Malcolm Campbell. In November 1937 George Eyston, in his powerful and heavy car Thunderbolt, achieved a new record, with a speed of 312.20 miles an hour over the measured kilometre.
AMUSEMENTS AND THE ENGINEERThere is sometimes as much engineering skill in the designing and building of the "rides" in an amusement park as there is in a new bridge. The safety of thousands of holiday-makers depends on the careful and accurate planning of the engineer.
AN OVERLAND CANAL Instead of using navigational locks, barges on the unique Overland Canal, in East Prussia, are hauled between different levels on wagons running on sees of rails.
AQUEDUCTS TO MANCHESTER A great part of the water supply for the city of Manchester comes from the Lake District, about a hundred miles away. From Thirlmere and Haweswater, natural lakes enlarged to form reservoirs, the water is carried to Manchester in pipe lines and tunnel aqueducts. Thirlmere supplies about 40,000,000 gallons of water a day and Haweswater is designed to supply no fewer than 75,000,000 gallons a day.
ARTESIAN BORES IN AUSTRALIA Underneath the parched lands of Australia lies a great subterranean reservoir, extending below one-fifth of the whole continent. By drilling numerous artesian wells, engineers have brought the waters to the surface in their efforts to combat the menace of drought.
ARTESIAN WELLS In certain parts of the world extensive areas are largely and sometimes entirely dependent on deep-bore wells for their water supply. Such deep-bore wells are called artesian because they were originally supposed to have originated in Artois, France.
BATTERSEA POWER STATION Electric power for the many purposes of a modern city is generated in the enormous power station at Battersea, London. The power station is one of the most advanced of the great generating centres now in the service of the electrical engineer.
BOILERS IN THE MAKING Despite the numerous types and sizes of boilers used in modern engineering, most boilers are made by closely related methods. Drums, end plates and tubes are produced with remarkable care, for much depends on the soundness of the boilermaker's work.
BRITAIN'S ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLIES Electricity has been made available in every part of Great Britain by a national network of transmission lines which link the powerful generating stations with local undertakings all over the country.
BUILDING THE BOULDER DAM The flow of the mighty Colorado River has been controlled by the building of one of the world's greatest barrages. The Boulder Dam gave employment to six thousand men for four and a half years.
BUILDING THE STATUE OF LIBERTY The colossal figure which stands at the entrance to New York Harbour was a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States. It is made of riveted metal sections and sixty men were occupied for ten years in building it.
CANALS ACROSS SWEDEN Despite the natural obstacles to canal building in Sweden, the country is equipped with a fine system of waterways which run inland from Göteborg to Stockholm. Many of the canals were of early origin and for their time were remarkable examples of civil engineering.
CANNING THE NATIONS' FOOD The development of the canning industry in recent years has entailed a remarkable increase in the manufacture of tinplate, which is made from steel into containers of every shape and size.
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Before moving forms were introduced for concrete work, an average of nine days had to elapse from the time of pouring to the striking of forms. New methods have enabled concrete buildings to be raised much more quickly.
CONQUEST OF THE DESERT Hundreds of thousands of acres of land in the Sudan have been reclaimed from the desert and irrigated by the building of the Sennar Dam across the Blue Nile.
CONTROLLING THE THAMES The River Thames, from its source to Teddington, Middlesex, is controlled by the Thames Conservancy, which is responsible for the maintenance of locks, weirs and other works, as well as for the control of the water level and of navigation.
EARLY STEAM COACHES The story of steam coaches which were tried before railways were developed is romantic and important. It was in road transport that the earliest experiments in the propulsion of carriages by steam power first showed signs of success.
ELECTRIC POWER FROM MERCURY The problems of converting the heat contained in fuel into useful work with greater economy have led engineers to consider some other fluid than water as a transmitting medium. Mercury is being used in the boilers and turbines in some power stations in the United States.
ENGINEERING MODELS The effects of large-scale engineering schemes, such as harbour works, hydro-electric plant or river control, can be studied beforehand by the use of scale models, of which some remarkable examples have been made.
EUROPE'S LONGEST SWING BRIDGE Across the Firth of Forth at Kincardine is a magnificent road bridge whose central span, 364 feet long, is pivoted on a central pier. This span is opened by electric controls to allow ths passage of shipping.
FIGHT AGAINST FIRE, THE To protect structures from possible damage by fire many ingenious precautions are taken when building is in progress. To extinguish outbreaks speedily fire engineers have devised many efficient appliances large and small.
FIGHT AGAINST FLOODS, THE The engineer is continually battling against the titanic might of the Mississippi River. The problem has proved too formidable for local effort, and its solution is reorganization under national control.
FIRST THAMES TUNNEL, THE The building of an underwater tunnel even to-day calls for great engineering skill and courage. A century ago Marc Isambard Brunel and the engineers who drove the Thames Tunnel between Wapping and Rotherhithe had none of the specialized mechanical aids available to the modern engineer.
FROM TIMBER TO NEWSPRINT To produce sufficient paper for one edition of a newspaper, nearly a hundred acres of forest must be felled, the timber must be transformed into pulp and the pulp into newsprint or paper by treatment in a number of ingenious machines.
FUEL FOR THE MODERN STEELWORKS Steel requires, in the making, such large quantities of fuel that the coke ovens of a steelworks are in themselves important examples of engineering practice. These ovens make the coke which is used for smelting the iron ore from which steel is derived.
GIANT OF THE ETHER A group of twelve towering masts at Rugby is the outward sign of a modern engineering marvel and a vast radio organization that links Great Britain with ships on the high seas and with every corner of the world.
GIANT TELESCOPES There are few scientific instruments made to-day which call for such precision in their assembly as modern telescopes. As these instruments may weigh 100 tons or more and have mirrors several tons in weight, their building calls for great engineering skill.
HARBOUR WORKS IN FRANCE Large-scale harbour engineering has recently been carried out by engineers of the Port of Bordeaux. Ingenious methods have been adopted in building a jetty for transatlantic liners and an unusual type of suction dredger has been built.
HARNESSING NIAGARA Twenty million tons of water flow hourly over Niagara Falls The utilization of this latent power is a supreme example of mastery over Nature and an engineering feat which has made Niagara River the source of the world's greatest water-power system.
HARNESSING THE MISSISSIPPI There are no great falls of water in the Mississippi, but engineers have been able to use its immense flow to drive thirty huge turbines with an aggregate output of 300,000 horse-power, at Keokuk, Iowa.
HERBERT AKROYD STUART Recognition of the genius of Herbert Akroyd Stuart, who died in 1927, is unaccountably tardy, but he it was who evolved and first put into practical form the principle of airless injection in oil engines.
HOW GOLD IS MINED Modern methods of treating gold-bearing quartz and the scientific separation of gold from impurities have not destroyed the romance always associated with the discovery of gold.
HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER IN BRAZIL In few regions are natural conditions so favourable for the production of hydro-electric power as in the Serra do Mar, São Paulo, Brazil. Here great reservoirs have been formed on a plateau at the top of the range, a short pipe line feeding the turbines in the plain below.
INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE Telephonic communication is now possible between London and almost every country in the world.A vast network of wire and radio links is controlled from Faraday Building, London,which has become the nerve-centre of world communication.
JOHN SMEATON Well known for his work on the third Eddystone Lighthouse, John Smeaton was engaged at various times on the building of bridges, waterworks, harbours and many other projects. An ardent experimentalist, Smeaton was gifted with unusual aptitude for mechanics.
LONDON'S HYDRAULIC POWER For the transmission of power beneath the streets of London there is a network of hydraulic mains, carrying water at a pressure of 700 lb. per square inch. This hydraulic power is used for many different purposes, from driving motors to operating lifts and similar mechanisms.
LUXURY CARS AND LIGHT CARS The war of 1914-18 was indirectly responsible for the development of the small, economical car. Although progress was retarded during the war period, the motor industry made rapid strides in the immediate post-war years. Several makes of car famous to-day were introduced during that period.
MARSH BUGGY, THE One of the most ingenious vehicles developed for engineering purposes is the marsh buggy, which is used in the swamp lands of Louisiana, U.S.A. It travels over roads as a motor car, through swamps as a tractor, and in the water as a boat.
MECHANICAL STORAGE OF POWER When hydro-electric power was installed to drive the machinery of two mills on the banks of the River Tweed in Peeblesshire, an ingenious system was devised to store up power while the mills were not working.
MERSEY TUNNEL, THE The world's largest underwater tunnel runs beneath the River Mersey for a distance of nearly three miles and joins Liverpool with Birkenhead. It took nine years to build and presented unusual engineering problems.
MILITARY ENGINEERINGThe duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers are not confined to bridge building, roadmaking, railway construction and the demolition of existing buildings. Other activities of the Corps include surveying, mapping, camouflage, anti-aircraft organization and the postal services of an army in the field.
MILLING OF FLOUR, THE The picturesque windmills of the past have been superseded by huge modern mills. In the flour mill of to-day the wheat undergoes a number of operations in which separators, dust collectors, mellowing bins, conditioners, sifters, purifiers and other machines play their part.
MINING FOR CHINA CLAY Devonshire and Cornwall have for centuries been among the world's richest sources of china clay. Methods of mining vary with the natural state of the deposits, and modern practice closely follows the methods used in former days.
MODERN CRANE, THE From the early type of windlass known to the Chinese thousands of years ago there have developed numerous types of crane, stationary and mobile, each designed for a special purpose.
MODERN SHOEMAKING METHODS Ingenious machines, working at remarkable speeds, are used in the large-scale production of modern footwear. Although the craftsman has been outpaced, the quality of machine-made shoes nowadays closely approaches that of shoes made by hand.
MOTORING : DEVELOPMENT IN THE 'NINETIES Motoring had been demonstrated as a practical possibility as early as 1890, but not until 1900 was the motor car a serious challenger in the world of mechanical transport. The period of experiment then gave place to the period of improvement.
MOTORING : THE WORK OF BENZ AND DAIMLER Transport has been completely revolutionized during the past fifty years by the invention and development of the petrol-driven car. The early work of a small group of pioneers laid the foundations of one of the largest industries in the world.
MOVABLE BRIDGES Many types of rolling, bascule, swing and vertical-lift bridges are in use to-day. Their principles have evolved from early types of movable bridges such as the medieval drawbridge.
NILE UNDER CONTROL, THE The flood waters of the River Nile regularly irrigate the parched lands through which the great river flows on its long descent to the Mediterranean. Having built enormous barrages, engineers have now solved the ancient problem of controlling these waters.
OIL ROUTE FROM THE EAST, THE Crude oil is transported directly from its source to the consumer through 1,150 miles of pipe line, the laying of which across the desert involved an expense of £10,000,000 and the employment of 10,000 men.
POWER FROM SCOTLAND'S LOCHS Of all the hydro-electric power schemes in Scotland, the largest and most recent is that in Galloway. Numerous dams, aqueducts, tunnels and other engineering works were built to provide the power for five generating stations which supply current to the Grid.
QUARRYING FOR SLATE In the mountains of Wales are the largest workings of slate in Great Britain. Methods of quarrying and of transport vary considerably, according to the nature of the beds.
RECLAIMING THE ZUIDER ZEE One of the largest engineering undertakings of recent times has been the reclamation of the Zuider Zee and the recovery of thousands of acres of land from the North Sea, which centuries ago robbed Holland of much valuable territory.
REFINEMENT AND EFFICIENCY Unremitting research and far-seeing enterprise have produced the motor car of to-day. Silence, reliability, economical running and controlled speed are among its characteristics. Luxury vehicles continue to make their limited appeal, but the inexpensive smaller types are now sold in vast quantities.
R.M.S. QUEEN MARY—SUPER-LINER Beginning merely as a number—No. 534—this vessel has grown into Britain's super-liner, a masterpiece of craftsmanship, a thing of beauty, and a crowning testimony to the brains and fingers of 300,000 people.
ROAD ENGINEERING The heavy motor traffic of to-day demands highways of a type far different from the paved roads built by Roman engineers, or the coach roads built by men such as Telford and McAdam.
ROMANCE OF MOTOR CAR MAKING Large-scale production of motor-cars is made possible by the specialization and organization of a vast number of engineering processes. The building of Morris cars affords an excellent example of the methods adopted in the industry.
SAN FRANCISCO'S GREAT BRIDGES A ferry service that carried 45,000,000 people across San Francisco Bay every year has been superseded by two of the biggest bridges in the world. Built at a cost of nearly £24,000,000, they are among the most spectacular bridge-building achievements ever undertaken.
SILVER MINING Fabulous wealth has been extracted for centuries from the rich and seemingly unlimited silver mines of South America and Mexico. The comparatively recent discovery of the metal in the United States and in Canada gave rise to modern scientific methods of refining.
SPANNING THE FIRTH OF FORTH The giant cantilever bridge which spans the Firth of Forth was opened in 1890 and remains one of the wonders of engineering. Built to link the railway systems of the east coast of Scotland, the Forth Bridge has a total length of more than one and a half miles.
STANDARDS OF ACCURACY Modern engineering demands a high degree of precision, based on accurate measurements, accurate standards of design and dimensions, and an accurate system of gauging. For example, the Imperial Standard Yard is the product of years of experiment.
STEAM TURBINE CONSTRUCTION There are two main types of steam turbine—impulse and reaction. The principles are different, but the processes construction are somewhat similar. In either type steam is caused to impinge on blades carried on a rotating part. The high speeds and stresses involved necessitate great strength and accuracy of manufacture.
STORY OF GAS PRODUCTION, THE The manufacture of gas releases valuable by-products of coal which are put to innumerable domestic and commercial uses. Coke, tar, benzole, ammonia and naphtha are among the commodities that are extracted during the distillation of gas from coal.
STORY OF OIL, THE Vast organizations, which make use of all the resources of engineering and science, have been built up to extract oil from the depths of the earth and to convert it for its many uses.
TEN YEARS OF PROGRESS The period between 1905 and 1914 saw the introduction into the motor industry of many names which have since become famous, and of many inventions which have contributed to the efficiency of the modern motor car.
TRIUMPHS OF CANAL BUILDING The name of Brindley is always associated with the building of Great Britain's canal system, which was begun more than 100 years before the great inter-oceanic waterways such as the Suez and Panama Canals.
TUNNELS UNDER GLASGOW The engineers who built the three underground railways of Glasgow and the three parallel tunnels under the harbour encountered strata of the most treacherous type. Many different systems of tunnelling had to ba used.
VEHICLES DRIVEN BY GAS Increasing use is being made to-day of gas for propelling motor lorries and cars. The gas is generated on the vehicles themselves from solid fuel such as charcoal or coke, and road tests have proved the producer-gas method of propulsion to be efficient and economical.
WORLD'S LAND SPEED RECORD, THE Sir Malcolm Campbell's record-breaking Blue Bird cars, in one of which he has attained speeds of more than 300 miles an hour, represent years of careful design and courageous experiment.
X-RAYS IN INDUSTRY Discovered by Professor W. K. Rontgen in 1895, X-rays are now used for a variety of purposes in industry, from revealing otherwise invisible defects in boiler welds to exposing fakes of old masters. Accidents such as boiler explosions can often be avoided by the timely X-ray examination of structures.