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Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox A closely related Native Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock. For a long period they dwelt around Saginaw Bay in E Michigan, but in the early 17th cent. they were driven from this area by the allied Ottawa and Neutral groups. The Sac (also commonly written Sauk) and the Fox fled N across the Strait of Mackinac, then S into present Wisconsin. Thus in 1667, when visited by Father Claude Jean Allouez, they were settled around Green Bay in NE Wisconsin. They then numbered some 6,500. The Sac were enterprising farmers but spent much time hunting and raiding, although they never developed a soldier society to the degree that the Fox did. The Fox were fierce warriors and constantly waged war with the Ojibwa. Together, the Sac and Fox fought wars against the Sioux and the Illinois, as well as the French. The French, harassed by the Fox, waged a war of extermination; by 1730 they had reduced the Fox to a mere handful. The remnants of the tribe incorporated with their longstanding allies, the Sac, and from that time the two tribes have been known as the Sac and Fox. After the war with the Illinois (c.1765), the Sac and Fox moved into Illinois territory. In 1804 a fraudulent treaty was extracted from them, and they were told to move W of the Mississippi. Most of them refused to go, but by 1831 they were induced to cross the river into Iowa. By 1832, however, they were back on the east side of the river, attacking frontier settlements. This started the Black Hawk War. After that war they moved west, eventually settling on reservations in Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma. Sac and Fox culture was of the Eastern Woodlands area with some Plains area traits. See W. T. Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (1958); F. O. Gearing, The Face of the Fox (1970).

Sac and Fox  - http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/11288.html
On-line encyclopedia article on the Sauk and Fox, including the Blackhawk War.

Sac and Fox  - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/mesq.htm
Background information and indexed links about Sac and Fox culture, community, history, language, and genealogy.

Sac and Fox of Oklahoma  - http://www.cowboy.net/native/sacnfox.html
Description, history, and links from this Indian tribe.

Sauk and Fox History  - http://www.dickshovel.com/sf.html
Compact tribal history from contact until now.

The Sauk and Fox Indians  - http://wywy.essortment.com/saukfoxindian_riev.htm
Article by PageWise. Will open more windows when you try to leave.

Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox, Meskwaki) Language  - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/mesq.htm
Page dedicated to the Mesquakie-Sauk language, also with information and links about Sac and Fox culture, history, and genealogy.