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Osage The indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock. In prehistoric times they lived with the Kansa, the Ponca, the Omaha, and the Quapaw in the Ohio valley, but by 1673 they had migrated to the vicinity of the Osage River in Missouri. They often conducted war against other Native Americans, and in the early 18th cent. allied themselves with the French against surrounding tribes, such as the Illinois. The Osage had a typical Plains area culture. One distinctive trait, however, was the tribal division between the Wazhazhe, or meat eaters, and the Tsishu, or vegetarians. In 1802, according to Lewis and Clark, three groups constituted the Osagethe Great Osage, on the Osage River, the Little Osage, farther up the same river, and the Arkansas band, on the Vermilion River, a tributary of the Arkansas. They then numbered some 5,500. By a series of treaties begun in 1810 the Osage ceded to the United States their extensive territory in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, and they moved to a reservation in N central Oklahoma. They have since been given the right to own their land individually. The discovery of oil on their reservation land, plus their landholdings, have combined to make the Osage the wealthiest Native Americans in the United States. See Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe (1921, repr. 1970) and War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians (1939); J. J. Mathews, The Osages, Children of the Middle Waters (1961); W. D. Baird, The Osage People (1972).

Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy  - http://www.law.ukans.edu/jrnl/v9n4p795.html
Academic history of the Osage, including their relocation from Kansas to Oklahoma Territory, treaties, and oil rights and legal disputes.

Native American Authors - Osage  - http://www.ipl.org/cgi/ref/native/browse.pl/t66
Profiles and bibliographies of contemporary Osage authors.

Office of Native American Programs  - http://www.codetalk.fed.us/sposage.html
Listing of federal program offices and contacts for the Osage tribe in Oklahoma.

Osage Indian Heritage  - http://www.lasr.net/leisure/oklahoma/osage/pawhuska/att19.html
Historical, cultural, and social review provided by the city of Pawhuska, Oklahoma.

Osage Research  - http://www.osage-research.com/
An online endeavor solely dedicated to collecting information about the Osage of Oklahoma and California.

Osage Resource Guide  - http://members.aol.com/bbbenge/page16.html
Guide to Osage genealogy research. Includes publication names and addresses.

Osage Tribe: Division of Lands and Funds  - http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol3/HTML_files/SES0252A.html
Online transcription of the 1906 U.S. treaty with the Osage tribe of Oklahoma Territory.

The Osage Tribe  - http://www.osagetribe.com/
Official website, sponsored by the Osage Tribal Council, includes history, newsletter, and contact information.