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Miami A group of Native Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock. They shared the cultural traits of the Eastern Woodlands area and the Plains area, hunting the buffalo that ranged through much of their territory. In the mid-17th cent. the Miami held land in W Wisconsin, NE Illinois, and N Indiana. In the mid-18th cent., however, the invading northern tribes drove the Miami to NW Ohio. The Miami occupied this territory until the treaty of 1763, when they retired to Indiana. They then numbered some 1,700. The Miami had aided the French in the French and Indian Wars, and they helped the British in the American Revolution. With their chief Little Turtle, the Miami were prominent in the Indian wars of the Old Northwest. By 1827 they had ceded most of their lands in Indiana and had agreed to move to Kansas. Most of them went (1840) to Kansas and then moved (1867) to Oklahoma, where they were placed on a reservation. Since then the land has been divided among them. There is also a group of Miami in Indiana. See Bert Anson, The Miami Indians (1970). Meshekinoquah aka Little Turtle c. 1752-1812, Chief of the Miami, born in a Miami village near present-day Fort Wayne, Ind. He was noted for his oratorical powers, military skill, and intelligence. He was a principal commander of the Native Americans in the defeat of Gen. Josiah Harmar on the Miami River in 1790 and of Gen. Arthur St. Clair on the Wabash River in 1791. After several attacks on the forces of Gen. Anthony Wayne, he counseled peace but was overruled. Consequently he was not in command at Fallen Timbers. He reluctantly signed the Treaty of Greenville (Ohio) in 1795, ceding a great part of Ohio to the whites, and he also signed several subsequent treaties. Later he refused to join Tecumseh's confederacy against the whites. He persuaded many of the Miami to turn to agriculture and appealed to the government to halt the liquor trade among his people. ME-SHE-KIN-O-QUAH or Chief Little Turtle was War Chief of the Miami Nation. He led the confederation of Indians that defeated General Arthur St. Clair, at Fort Recovery on November 3, 1791. His force inflicted the worst defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of Native Americans. St. Clair's army consisted of 1300 soldiers. In the battle, 602 were killed and about 300 wounded. The Indian force consisted of approximately 1000 warriors. Only 66 Indians were killed in this battle! It was the greatest defeat the Americans ever suffered at the hands of the Indians. Even worst than the loss suffered at the Battle of Little Big Horn or Custer's Last Stand. Custer only lost about 210 men compared to St. Clair's loss of 602 killed! Me-she-kin-no-quah lived the village of Ke-ki-ong-a'. Kekinonga means blackberry patch. This was the Miami capitol (Ft. Wayne, IN).

Frances Slocum - http://www.rootsweb.com/~scwhite/slocum/frances.html
Story of a Quaker girl raised by Miami Indians, and the genealogy of her descendants.

Miami - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/miam.htm
Background information and indexed links about Miami culture, community, history, language revival, and genealogy.

Miami Indian Culture - http://nmnm.essortment.com/miamiindiancul_rknf.htm
Miami Indian culture and other information about their past lifestyle.

Miami Nations Homepage - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/7156/index.html
Joint effort of the Miami Nations of Oklahoma and Indiana, this page consists of pre-removal information compiled by representatives of both tribes and links to sites of interest.

Miami Tribe of Oklahoma - http://www.miamination.com/
Official homepage of the tribe, with history and culture information.

Ohio History: Miami Indians - http://www.ohiokids.org/ohc/history/h_indian/tribes/miami.html
Overview of the Miami, with a map of Miami towns in Ohio.

Miami Revival - http://www.miamination.com/page9.html
Miami revival and a Miami language CD.

Miami-Illinois Language - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/miam.htm
Page dedicated to the Miami-Illinois language, also with information and links about Miami and Illinois culture, history, and genealogy. The Miami Language - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/7156/language.html
Overview of the Miami language from the Miami Nation, with a phrasebook, word games, and language contacts.