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Kiowa Native North Americans, whose language is thought to form a branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock. The Kiowa, a nomadic people of the Plains area, had several distinctive traits, including a pictographic calendar and the worship of a stone image, the taimay. In the 17th cent. they occupied W Montana, but by about 1700 they had moved to an area SE of the Yellowstone River. Here they came into contact with the Crow, who gave the Kiowa permission to settle in the Black Hills. While living there, they acquired (c.1710) the horse, probably from the Crow. Their trade was mainly with the Arikara, the Mandan, and the Hidatsa. After the invading Cheyenne and the Sioux drove the Kiowa from the Black Hills, they were forced to move south to Comanche territory; in 1790, after a bloody war, the Kiowa reached a permanent peace with the Comanche. According to Lewis and Clark, the Kiowa were on the North Platte River in 1805, but not much later they occupied the Arkansas River region. Later the Kiowa, who allied themselves with the Comanche, raided as far south as Durango, Mexico, attacking Mexicans, Texans, and Native Americans, principally the Navaho and the Osage. In 1837 the Kiowa were forced to sign their first treaty, providing for the passage of Americans through Kiowa-Comanche land; the presence of settlers in increased numbers accelerated hostilities. After 1840, when the Kiowa made peace with the Cheyenne, four groupsthe Kiowa, the Cheyenne, the Comanche, and the Apachecombined to fight the eastern tribes, who had migrated to Indian Territory. This caused more hostility between Native Americans and the U.S. government, and U.S. forces finally defeated the confederacy and imposed the Treaty of Medicine Lodge (1867). This confederated the Kiowa, the Comanche, and the Apache and provided that they should settle in Oklahoma. However, parts of the Kiowa remained hostile until the mid-1870s. Oncoming settlers, unaware of treaty rights, caused friction with the Kiowa, resulting in a series of minor outbreaks. In 1874 the Kiowa were involved in a serious conflict, which was suppressed by the U.S. army. American soldiers killed the horses of the Kiowa, and the government deported the Kiowa leaders to Florida. By 1879 most of them were settled on their present reservation in Oklahoma. The Kiowa Apache, a small group of North American Native Americans traditionally associated with the Kiowa from the earliest times, now live with them on their reservation. The Kiowa Apache retain their own language. See R. H. Lowie, Societies of the Kiowa (1916); A. L. Marriott, Kiowa Years (1968); M. P. Mayhall, The Kiowas (rev. ed. 1972).

Kiowa Art in the Smithonian  - http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/kiowa/kiowa.htm
Six .jpg images of anthropological and artistic works on buffalo hide and more recent examples on paper. Suggested reading list.

Kiowa Indians  - http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/KK/bmk10.html
Printable article from The Handbook of Texas Online. Historical focus.

Kiowa Nation  - http://www.indians.org/welker/kiowa.htm
Small amount of simple information about the tribe.

Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma  - http://home.swbell.net/starwolf/main.html
Unofficial website presents history, culture, religion, modern transition, Kiowa authors, bibliography and links. Contact information for tribal headquarters.

Oscar B. Jacobson Kiowa Art Collection  - http://www.ou.edu/fjjma/jacobson/.index.html
27 .jpg thumbnails of paintings from the Studio of the Santa Fe Indian School, 1932-1937. Click for larger images. Some artists' biographies included.

The Power of Kiowa Song  - http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/extras/kiowa/kiowasng.htm
21 annotated audio files of music from this American Indian tribe. Quicktime; long loads.

Who Were the Kiowa Indian Tribe?  - http://ar.essortment.com/kiowawhowerei_riez.htm
Short article reprinted from PageWise.com.

Apache Indian Photo Gallery  - http://www.geocities.com/impurplehawk/apgallery.html
Photos of the Apache Indian as they were, and as they are today.

Apache Sunrise Ceremony  - http://www.geocities.com/tmartiac//yupanqui/apachesunrise.htm
Article explaining the Na'ii'ees reenactment. Links to puberty rites, womens societies, and general Apache information. Historical and contemporary photos.

Chiricahua-Warm Springs-Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma  - http://fsat.tripod.com
The online Headquarters of the Chiricahua-Warm Springs-Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma.

Fort Apache Indian Reservation  - http://www.geocities.com/athens/delphi/2897
A photographer's personal view of Fort Apache Indian Reservation, The White Mountain Apache Tribe, Apache and Native American culture with unique photos of the Apache puberty rite for girls.

Jicarilla Apache  - http://www.ausbcomp.com/redman/jicarilla.htm
Based in Dulce, New Mexico. Historical profile, links to current political proceedings, and fishing and gaming. Contact information.

Jicarilla Apache Tribe  - http://www.jade2.tec.nm.us/
Tribal history, tribal directory, contacts for the Tribal Departments, information about the people, and schools are included.

Jicarilla Tourism  - http://www.sos.state.nm.us/BLUEBOOK/jicarilla.htm
Brochure outlining topography, events, and accommodations at the reservation.

Post-Contact Social Organization of Three Apache Tribes  - http://www.geocities.com/jqjacobs/southwest/apache.html
History with special emphasis on Mescalero, Chiricahua and Western Apache social organization before their conquest. By James Q. Jacobs.

Through Apache Eyes....PurpleHawk's Nest  - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Canopy/8494
Apache Indian facts on their life, culture, history, folklore, war, warriors. Child Safe for educational purposes.

White Mountain Apache Tribe  - http://www.wmat.nsn.us/
Information about the tribe's culture, history, and government.

Yavapai-Apache Nation  - http://www.yavapai-apache-nation.com/
Tribal Council roster, newsletter downloads in .pdf format, event calendar, photos and contact information. Yavapai-Apache creation story and Ft. Verde Indian history.