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Illinois A confederation of Native North Americans, comprising the Cahokia, the Kaskaskia, the Michigamea, the Moingwena, the Peoria, and the Tamaroa tribes. They belong to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock . In the mid-17th cent. they lived in S Wisconsin, N Illinois, and sections of Iowa and Missouri. They then numbered some 6,500. Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet are believed to have been the first Europeans to travel (1673) through Illinois territory. Father Claude Jean Allouez, a Jesuit missionary, visited them in 1676 and stayed with them for years. By 1750 wars with the Sioux, the Fox, and the Iroquois had reduced the population to some 2,000. In 1769 the assassination of the celebrated Ottawa chief Pontiac by a Kaskaskia provoked the Lake tribes (the Ojibwa, the Ottawa, the Potawatami, the Kickapoo, and the Sac and Fox) to vengeance. They began a war of extermination, which in a few years diminished the Illinois to a small number, who sought asylum at the French settlement at Kaskaskia. By 1800 there remained some 150 Illinois. In 1833 the survivors, represented by the Kaskaskia and the Peoria, sold their lands in Illinois and moved W of the Mississippi. Their descendants now occupy a reservation in NE Oklahoma, which they share with the Wea and Piankashaw.

Catholic Encyclopedia: Illinois Indians  - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07660a.htm
Short article by the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia on the history of the missionizing of the Illinois Indians.

Catholic Encyclopedia: Kaskaskia Indians  - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08608b.htm
Short article by the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia on the history of the missionizing of the Kaskaskia Indians.

Illinois History  - http://www.dickshovel.com/ill.html
Historical resource on the Illinois Indians by Lee Sultzman; part of Jordan Dill's compact tribal histories.

Native Americans:Post-Contact:The Illinois  - http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/il.html
Historical overview of the Illinois tribes from the time of European contact.

Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma  - http://www.peoriatribe.com/
Official homepage of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma.

Piasa Bird Legend  - http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dreyer_infonet/piasa4.htm
The fictional "Illinois" legend of the Piasa Bird, and the explanation of its true origins (a white fictionwriter invented it in the 19th century).

Prairie Region Indian Costume  - http://www.nativetech.org/clothing/regions/region9.html
Shawnee, Arikara, Miami, and Illinois traditional dress.

The Illini Confederation: Lords of the Mississippi Valley  - http://members.tripod.com/~RFester/index.html
Scholarly resource on the Illinois Indians, also known as the Illiniwek or Illini Confederation.

The Illiniwek  - http://crusader.cso.uiuc.edu/~bohlmann/illini.html
A concise article on the Illini, by Judi Johnson, Illinois State Museum.

The Illinois Indian Tribes  - http://ca.essortment.com/illinoisindians_rkhv.htm
Essay from PageWise. Will open more windows when you try to leave.

Miami Revival  - http://www.miamination.com/page9.html
Miami revival and a Miami language CD.

Miami-Illinois Language  - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/miam.htm
Page dedicated to the Miami-Illinois language, also with information and links about Miami and Illinois culture, history, and genealogy.

The Miami Language  - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/7156/language.html
Overview of the Miami language from the Miami Nation, with a phrasebook, word games, and language contacts.