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Huron Tribe

Native Americans - Huron Tribe

A confederation of four Native North American groups who spoke the Wyandot language, which belongs to the Iroquoian branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock. Their name for themselves was Wendat, Huron being the name applied to them by the French. In the early 17th cent. they occupied the region between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay in Ontario and numbered some 20,000. Their culture was substantially that of the area of the Eastern woodlands. They lived in palisaded villages and cultivated tobacco. In 1615, when Samuel Champlain visited the Huron, they were at war with the Iroquois. The long-standing enmity between the Huron and the Iroquois reached a climax in 1648, when the Iroquois, armed with Dutch firearms, invaded Huronia and subsequently disrupted (1649) the Huron confederacy. It was at this time that Father Jean de Brbeuf, who established (1626) a Roman Catholic mission among the Huron, and other Jesuit missionaries were killed by the Iroquois. The survivors of the Huron fled in all directionssouthwest to the Tobacco Nation, south to the Neutral Nation, southeast to the Erie, and northeast to a French fort near Quebec. The implacable Iroquois hunted the Huron everywhere; in 1649 the Iroquois attacked the Tobacco Nation, causing the migration of these people in company with the Huron. In 1650 the Neutral Nation was invaded by the Iroquois and practically wiped out, and in 1656 the Erie were almost exterminated. The Huron who had fled to Quebec ultimately received a small reservation at Lorette, where some 500 still live, but the remnants of the Huron and Tobacco Nation went, under pressure from the Iroquois, first to Michigan, then to Wisconsin and Illinois, where the Sioux attacked them. The Tobacco Nation and Huron eventually settled (1750) in villages near Detroit and at Sandusky, Ohio. In Ohio they became known to the British as the Wyandot and as such fought with the British against the Americans in both the American Revolution and the War of 1812. After the War of 1812 possession of their lands was confirmed by the United States, but by 1842 they had sold their tracts and moved to what is now Wyandotte co., Kansas. In 1867 they were settled in NE Oklahoma, where they reside as citizens. See B. G. Trigger, The Huron Farmers of the North (1969).

Huron History  - http://www.tolatsga.org/hur.html
Essay detailing the history of the Hurons from European contact until now.

Huron-Wendat Nation  - http://www.telegraphe.com/wendake/indexen.html
Travel guide to the Huron-Wendat Nation from the Quebec City Guide.

Huron-Wendat Newsletter  - http://ishgooda.nativeweb.org/ishgooda/huron/wendat.htm
Also with photos, a discussion list, and links.

B.N.O. Walker's Wyandot Vocabulary  - http://www.wyandot.org/bnolang.html
Short list of phonetic transcriptions.

Huron-Wendat  - http://www.autochtones.com/en/first_peoples/hurons_wendat.html
Discussion of the Huron-Wendat language, once spoken in Quebec, and the Hurons today.

Preserving Wyandotte  - http://ishgooda.nativeweb.org/ishgooda/huron/Quest1.htm
Description of a linguist's work to preserve and revitalize the Wyandotte-Huron language.

Vocabularies of the Shawanoese and Wyandott Languages  - http://www.wyandot.org/lang1.html
Report by Indian Agent Colonel John Johnston, originally published in 1858. Includes some phonetic transcriptions.

Wendat Dialects and the Development of the Huron Alliance  - http://www.wyandot.org/wendat.htm
Historical linguistic treatment by John Steckley of Humber College.

Wyandot Language Sample  - HTTP://www.sfo.com/~denglish/wyandot_language/
Short list of .wav files from B.N.O. Walker's recordings.