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Arapaho Native North Americans of the Plains whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock. Their own name was Inuna-ina (our people), but they were referred to as dog eaters (for the obvious reason) by other Native Americans. Tradition places their early home in N Minnesota in the Red River valley, but nothing is known of the date or circumstances of their separation from other Algonquian peoples. They are thought to be most closely related to the Cheyenne and to the Blackfoot. However, it is known that the Arapaho divided into two groups after they migrated to the plains. One group, the Northern Arapaho, continued to live on the North Platte River in Wyoming, while the Southern Arapaho moved south to the Arkansas River in Colorado. Traditionally the Southern Arapaho were allied with the Cheyenne against the Pawnee. The Arapaho placed some emphasis on age grades, mainly for ceremonial purposes. Their annual sun dance was a major tribal event, and later the Arapaho adopted the Ghost Dance religion. There are three major divisionsthe Atsina or Gros Ventre, who were allied with the Blackfoot and now live with the Assiniboin on the Fort Belknap Reservation in Montana; the Southern Arapaho, now living with the Cheyenne in Oklahoma; and the Northern Arapaho, who retain all of the sacred tribal stone articles and are considered by Native Americans to represent the parent group. Since 1876 they have lived on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming with their former enemies, the Shoshone. See G. A. Dorsey and A. L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (1903, repr. 1974); V. C. Trenholm, Arapahoes, Our People (1970).

Yellow Calf's Headdress

Chief Yellow Calf was the last chief of the Arapaho tribe. His headdress, decorated with fur and feathers, serves as a reminder of him and of the greatness of the Arapaho tribe. One of the Plains groups, the Arapaho lived a nomadic life-style in a region that is bordered by the Yellowstone River and the Rio Grande. Today, the tribe lives on reservations in Montana, Wyoming, and Oklahoma.

Arapaho  - http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?ti=02261000
Brief Encarta Encyclopedia article about the nomadic tribe, the Arapaho.

Arapaho  - http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/ARAPAHO.html
Brief cultural and historical information.

Arapaho  - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/arap.htm
Simple information and indexed links about Arapaho culture, community, history, language, and genealogy.

Arapaho Business Council  - http://tlc.wtp.net/arapaho.htm
Contact information, and links to the Montana-Wyoming Tribal Leaders council site, and council members' sites.

Arapaho Indian Culture  - http://sc.essortment.com/arapahoindianw_rijy.htm
Way of life, history, culture, heritage and current situation.

Arapaho Lands  - http://rebelcherokee.tripod.com/arapaho.html
Arapaho creation myth, history, culture, and links.

Arapaho Moccasins  - http://www.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/html/skchbk02.html
Description of and instructions for making Arapaho Moccasins, from the Museum and Research Center of the American Mountain Men. First appeared in Tomahawk, and Long Rifle, April 1983.

Arapaho Repatriation, the Human Remains  - http://nmnhwww.si.edu/anthro/repatriation/araprep.htm
Summary of the documentation for the Northern and Southern Arapaho human remains housed in the Smithsonian.

Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation  - http://members.aol.com/Donh523/navapage/cheyarap.htm
A picture of the flag.

Cheyenne Arapaho Lands Indian Territory  - http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Hills/1263/itcheyarapindx.html
Genealogical information about the Cheyenne - Araphaho Nations.

Going Beyond Words, the Arapaho Immersion Program  - http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/TIL_3.html
Description of how to teach Arapaho.

Nihancan and the Dwarf's Arrow  - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5292/nihancan.htm
An Arapaho tale.

Northern Arapaho Tribe  - http://www.rmisp.com/northernarapahotribe/
Picture tour of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, business opportunities, tax incentives.

The Arapaho  - http://www.curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/arapaho.html
From Notes from The North American Indian, by Es Curtis. Historical and cultural information about the traditional tribe.

The Arapaho Tribe  - http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/arapaho.html
From the Omaha Public Library, historical information and links to a photo gallery and the original Secretary's Report from TransMississippi Expedition.

The Flag Arapaho of Wyoming  - http://members.aol.com/Donh523/navapage/arapaho.htm
The Arapaho flag on the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Includes a history.

The Girl Who Climbed to the Sky  - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5292/tgwctts.htm
An Arapaho tale.

The Lame Warrior and the Skeleton  - http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5292/lamewarr.htm
An Arapaho tale.

The Wyoming Companion - Native Americans  - http://www.wyomingcompanion.com/wcwrr.html
Extensive 1996 article about the Arapaho Nation.

Treaty with the Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, October 17, 1865.  - http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ntreaty/apchar65.htm
From the Avalon Project, Yale Law School.

Arapaho (Inuna-Ina, Hinonoeino) Language  - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/arap.htm
Page dedicated to the Arapaho language, also with information and links about Arapaho culture, history, and genealogy.

Arapaho Software  - http://secure.worldlanguage.com/world/cfm/searchbylang.cfm?langscanid=596&cart_id=837690
Arapaho-language software for sale.

Bambi in Arapaho  - http://www.uwyo.edu/special/wch/bambi.htm
Arapaho-language version of the Disney movie "Bambi."

Teaching Arapaho Language Through Immersion  - http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/TIL_3.html
Essay on Arapaho and other indigenous language preservation efforts by Stephen Greymorning.