Click on the button beside each word to show its abbreviation in the text. The exact transcript of the letters of the abbreviation (without the abbreviation mark) will appear in the text box. If the arrow shoots off the screen, just scroll after it.  
There are many abbreviations in this text, including to personal names. The selection shown here represents terms highly specific to charters, some of which are so highly abbreviated that you just have to know what they should be. To investigate all the abbreviations, open the transcript window and work through the text with it.
Private charter, 1444, from the collection of Rob Schäfer. All images © Rob Schäfer.

| overview | seals | text | alphabet | abbreviations | structure | exercises |

| transcript | translation |

Click on each of the above to walk your way through the text. The transcript will appear in a separate window so that you can use it for reference at any time. These exercises are designed to guide you through the text, not test you, so you can cheat as much as you like.
Medieval Writing
Script sample for this example
Index of Exercises
Index of Scripts

If you are looking at this page without frames, there is more information about medieval writing to be found by going to the home page (framed) or the site map (no frames).
This site is created and maintained by Dr Dianne Tillotson, freelance researcher and compulsive multimedia and web author. Comments are welcome. Material on this web site is copyright, but some parts more so than others. Please check here for copyright status and usage before you start making free with it. This page last modified 26/5/2005.