Click on button beside each word to indicate its abbreviation in the text.  
This is only a sample from the first few lines, to indicate the abbreviation marks and the systems used. There are abbreviations in the proper nouns, or names, as well. Once you have got your eye in, you can find all the abbreviations by checking the text against the transcript.  
Charter of Ralph de Cuningburgh to the Abbey of Byland (British Library, add. charter 70691). All images by permission of the British Library.

| overview | seal | text | alphabet | abbreviations | structure | exercises |

| transcript | translation |

Click on each of the above to walk your way through the text. The transcript will appear in a separate window so that you can use it for reference at any time. These exercises are designed to guide you through the text, not test you, so you can cheat as much as you like.
Medieval Writing
Script sample for this example
Index of Exercises
Index of Scripts

If you are looking at this page without frames, there is more information about medieval writing to be found by going to the home page (framed) or the site map (no frames).
This site is created and maintained by Dr Dianne Tillotson, freelance researcher and compulsive multimedia and web author. Comments are welcome. Material on this web site is copyright, but some parts more so than others. Please check here for copyright status and usage before you start making free with it. This page last modified 3/5/2005.